Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Perfect, I grumbled to myself. Just perfect. Ian was coming to join me for lunch, a big smile glued into place on his face. Trying to cheer me upÃ¢â¬ ¦ again. I think you're overdoing the sarcasm lately, Melanie told me. I'll keep that in mind. I hadn't heard from her much in the past week. Neither of us was good company right now. It was better if we avoided social interaction, even with each other. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, Wanda,Ã¢â¬ Ian greeted me, hopping up onto the counter beside me. He had a bowl of tomato soup in one hand, still steaming. Mine was beside me, cooled and half full. I was toying with a piece of roll, ripping it into tiny pieces. I didn't answer him. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, come on.Ã¢â¬ He put his hand on my knee. Mel's angry reaction was lethargic. She was too used to this kind of thing to really work up a good fit anymore. Ã¢â¬Å"They'll be back today. Before sunset, without a doubt.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You said that three days ago, and two days ago, and again yesterday,Ã¢â¬ I reminded him. Ã¢â¬Å"I have a good feeling about today. Don't sulk-it's so human,Ã¢â¬ he teased. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not sulking.Ã¢â¬ I wasn't. I was so worried I could barely think straight. It didn't leave me energy to do anything else. Ã¢â¬Å"This isn't the first raid Jamie's gone on.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That makes me feel so much better.Ã¢â¬ Again with the sarcasm. Melanie was right-I really was overusing it. Ã¢â¬Å"He's got Jared and Geoffrey and Trudy with him. And Kyle's here.Ã¢â¬ Ian laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"So there's no way they'll get into any trouble.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't want to talk about it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Okay.Ã¢â¬ He turned his attention to his food and let me stew. Ian was nice that way-always trying to give me what I wanted, even when what I wanted was unclear to either of us. His insistent attempts to distract me from the present anxiety excepted, of course. I knew I didn't want that. I wanted to worry; it was the only thing I could do. It had been a month since I'd moved back into Jamie and Jared's room. For three weeks of that time, the four of us had lived together. Jared slept on a mattress wedged above the head of the bed where Jamie and I slept. I'd gotten used to it-the sleeping part, at least; I was having a hard time sleeping now in the empty room. I missed the sound of two other bodies breathing. I hadn't gotten used to waking up every morning with Jared there. It still took me a second too long to return his morning greeting. He was not at ease, either, but he was always polite. We were both very polite. It was almost scripted at this point. Ã¢â¬Å"Good morning, Wanda, how did you sleep?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Fine, thank you, and you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Fine, thanks. AndÃ¢â¬ ¦ Mel?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"She's good, too, thanks.Ã¢â¬ Jamie's constant state of euphoria and his happy chattering kept things from becoming too strained. He talked about-and to-Melanie often, until her name was no longer the source of stress it had once been when Jared was present. Every day, it got a little bit more comfortable, the pattern of my life here a little bit more pleasant. We wereÃ¢â¬ ¦ sort of happy. Both Melanie and I. And then, a week ago, Jared had left for another short raid-mostly to replace broken tools-and taken Jamie with him. Ã¢â¬Å"You tired?Ã¢â¬ Ian asked. I realized I was rubbing at my eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"Not really.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Still not sleeping well?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's too quiet.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I could sleep with you-Oh, calm down, Melanie. You know what I meant.Ã¢â¬ Ian always noticed when Melanie's antagonism made me cringe. Ã¢â¬Å"I thought they were going to be back today,Ã¢â¬ I challenged. Ã¢â¬Å"You're right. I guess there's no need for rearranging.Ã¢â¬ I sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe you should take the afternoon off.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Don't be silly,Ã¢â¬ I told him. Ã¢â¬Å"I've got plenty of energy for work.Ã¢â¬ He grinned as though I'd said something that pleased him. Something he'd been hoping I would say. Ã¢â¬Å"Good. I could use some help with a project.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What's the project?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'll show you-you finished there?Ã¢â¬ I nodded. He took my hand as he led me out of the kitchen. Again, this was so common that Melanie barely protested. Ã¢â¬Å"Why are we going this way?Ã¢â¬ The eastern field did not need attention. We'd been part of the group that had irrigated it this morning. Ian didn't answer. He was still grinning. He led me down the eastern tunnel, past the field and into the corridor that led to only one place. As soon as we were in the tunnel, I could hear voices echoing and a sporadic thud, thud that it took me a moment to place. The stale, bitter sulfur odor helped link the sound to the memory. Ã¢â¬Å"Ian, I'm not in the mood.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You said you had plenty of energy.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"To work. Not to play soccer.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But Lily and Wes will be really disappointed. I promised them a game of two-on-two. They worked so hard this morning to free up the afternoonÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Don't try to make me feel guilty,Ã¢â¬ I said as we rounded the last curve. I could see the blue light of several lamps, shadows flitting in front of them. Ã¢â¬Å"Isn't it working?Ã¢â¬ he teased. Ã¢â¬Å"C'mon, Wanda. It will be good for you.Ã¢â¬ He pulled me into the low-ceilinged game room, where Lily and Wes were passing the ball back and forth across the length of the field. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, Wanda. Hey, Ian,Ã¢â¬ Lily called to us. Ã¢â¬Å"This one's mine, O'Shea,Ã¢â¬ Wes warned him. Ã¢â¬Å"You're not going to let me lose to Wes, are you?Ã¢â¬ Ian murmured. Ã¢â¬Å"You could beat them alone.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It would still be a forfeit. I'd never live it down.Ã¢â¬ I sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"Fine. Fine. Be that way.Ã¢â¬ Ian hugged me with what Melanie thought was unnecessary enthusiasm. Ã¢â¬Å"You're my very favorite person in the known universe.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks,Ã¢â¬ I muttered dryly. Ã¢â¬Å"Ready to be humiliated, Wanda?Ã¢â¬ Wes taunted. Ã¢â¬Å"You may have taken the planet, but you're losing this game.Ã¢â¬ Ian laughed, but I didn't respond. The joke made me uneasy. How could Wes make a joke about that? Humans were always surprising me. Melanie included. She'd been in just as miserable a mood as I was, but now she was suddenly excited. We didn't get to play last time, she explained. I could feel her yearning to run-to run for pleasure rather than in fear. Running was something she used to love. Doing nothing won't get them home any faster. A distraction might be nice. She was already thinking strategy, sizing up our opponents. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you know the rules?Ã¢â¬ Lily asked me. I nodded. Ã¢â¬Å"I remember them.Ã¢â¬ Absently, I bent my leg at the knee and grabbed my ankle behind me, pulling it to stretch out the muscles. It was a familiar position to my body. I stretched the other leg and was pleased that it felt whole. The bruise on the back of my thigh was faded yellow, almost gone. My side felt fine, which made me think that my rib had never really been broken. I'd seen my face while I was cleaning mirrors two weeks ago. The scar forming on my cheek was dark red and as big as the palm of my hand, with a dozen jagged points around the edges. It bothered Melanie more than it did me. Ã¢â¬Å"I'll take the goal,Ã¢â¬ Ian told me, while Lily fell back and Wes paced beside the ball. A mismatch. Melanie liked this. Competition appealed to her. From the moment the game started-Wes kicking the ball back to Lily and then sprinting ahead to get around me for her pass-there was very little time to think. Only to react and to feel. See Lily shift her body, measure the direction this would send the ball. Cut Wes off-ah, but he was surprised by how fast I was-launch the ball to Ian and move up the field. Lily was playing too far forward. I raced her to the lantern goalpost and won. Ian aimed the pass perfectly, and I scored the first goal. It felt good: the stretch and pull of muscle, the sweat of exertion rather than plain heat, the teamwork with Ian. We were well matched. I was quick, and his aim was deadly. Wes's goading dried up before Ian scored the third goal. Lily called the game when we hit twenty-one. She was breathing hard. Not me; I felt good, muscles warm and limber. Wes wanted another round, but Lily was done. Ã¢â¬Å"Face it, they're better.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We got hustled.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No one ever said she couldn't play.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No one ever said she was a pro, either.Ã¢â¬ I liked that-it made me smile. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't be a sore loser,Ã¢â¬ Lily said, reaching out to tickle Wes's stomach playfully. He caught her fingers and pulled her closer to him. She laughed, tugging away, but Wes reeled her in and planted a solid kiss on her laughing mouth. Ian and I exchanged a quick, startled glance. Ã¢â¬Å"For you, I will lose with grace,Ã¢â¬ Wes told her, and then set her free. Lily's smooth caramel skin had taken on a bit of pink on her cheeks and neck. She peeked at Ian and me to see our reaction. Ã¢â¬Å"And now,Ã¢â¬ Wes continued, Ã¢â¬Å"I'm off to get reinforcements. We'll see how your little ringer does against Kyle, Ian.Ã¢â¬ He lobbed the ball into the far dark corner of the cave, where I heard it splash into the spring. Ian trotted off to retrieve it, while I continued to look at Lily curiously. She laughed at my expression, sounding self-conscious, which was unusual for her. Ã¢â¬Å"I know, I know.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How long hasÃ¢â¬ ¦ that been going on?Ã¢â¬ I wondered. She grimaced. Ã¢â¬Å"Not my business. Sorry.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's okay. It's not a secret-how could anything be a secret here, anyway? It's just reallyÃ¢â¬ ¦ new to me. It's sort of your fault,Ã¢â¬ she added, smiling to show that she was teasing me. I felt a little guilty anyway. And confused. Ã¢â¬Å"What did I do?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing,Ã¢â¬ she assured me. Ã¢â¬Å"It was Wes'sÃ¢â¬ ¦ reaction to you that surprised me. I didn't know he had so much depth to him. I was never really aware of him before that. Oh, well. He's too young for me, but what does that matter here?Ã¢â¬ She laughed again. Ã¢â¬Å"It's strange how life and love go on. I didn't expect that.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah. Kind of funny how that happens,Ã¢â¬ Ian agreed. I hadn't heard him return. He slung his arm around my shoulders. Ã¢â¬Å"It's nice, though. You do know Wes has been infatuated with you since he first got here, right?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"So he says. I hadn't noticed.Ã¢â¬ Ian laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"Then you're the only one. So, Wanda, how about some one-on-one while we're waiting?Ã¢â¬ I could feel Melanie's wordless enthusiasm. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay.Ã¢â¬ He let me have the ball first, holding back, hugging the goal area. My first shot cut between him and the post, scoring. I rushed him when he kicked off, and got the ball back. I scored again. He's letting us win, Mel grumbled. Ã¢â¬Å"Come on, Ian. Play.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I am.Ã¢â¬ Tell him he's playing like a girl. Ã¢â¬Å"Playing like a girl.Ã¢â¬ He laughed, and I slipped the ball away from him again. The taunt wasn't enough. I had an inspiration then, and I shot the ball through his goal, guessing it would probably be the last time I got to do it. Mel objected. I don't like this idea. I'll bet it works, though. I put the ball back at center field. Ã¢â¬Å"You win, and you can sleep in my room while they're gone.Ã¢â¬ I needed a good night's rest. Ã¢â¬Å"First to ten.Ã¢â¬ With a grunt, he launched the ball past me so hard that it rebounded off the distant, invisible wall behind my goal and came back to us. I looked at Lily. Ã¢â¬Å"Was that wide?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, it looked dead center to me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"One-three,Ã¢â¬ Ian announced. It took him fifteen minutes to win, but at least I got to really work. I even squeezed in one more goal, of which I was proud. I was gasping for air when he stole the ball from me and sailed it through my goalposts for the last time. He wasn't winded. Ã¢â¬Å"Ten-four, I win.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Good game,Ã¢â¬ I huffed. Ã¢â¬Å"Tired?Ã¢â¬ he asked, the innocence in his tone a bit overdone. Being funny. He stretched. Ã¢â¬Å"I think I'm ready for bed myself.Ã¢â¬ He leered in a melodramatic way. I winced. Ã¢â¬Å"Aw, Mel, you know I'm joking. Be nice.Ã¢â¬ Lily eyed us, mystified. Ã¢â¬Å"Jared's Melanie objects to me,Ã¢â¬ Ian told her, winking. Her eyebrows rose. Ã¢â¬Å"That'sÃ¢â¬ ¦ interesting.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I wonder what's taking Wes so long?Ã¢â¬ Ian muttered, not taking much notice of her reaction. Ã¢â¬Å"Should we go find out? I could use some water.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Me, too,Ã¢â¬ I agreed. Ã¢â¬Å"Bring some back.Ã¢â¬ Lily didn't move from where she was half sprawled on the floor. As we entered the narrow tunnel, Ian threw one arm lightly around my waist. Ã¢â¬Å"You know,Ã¢â¬ he said, Ã¢â¬Å"it's really unfair for Melanie to make you suffer when she's angry at me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Since when are humans fair?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Good point.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Besides, she'd be glad to make you suffer, if I'd let her.Ã¢â¬ He laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"That's nice about Wes and Lily, don't you think?Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes. They both seem very happy. I like that.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I like it, too. Wes finally got the girl. Gives me hope.Ã¢â¬ He winked at me. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you think Melanie would make you very uncomfortable if I were to kiss you right now?Ã¢â¬ I stiffened for a second, then took a deep breath. Ã¢â¬Å"Probably.Ã¢â¬ Oh, yes. Ã¢â¬Å"Definitely.Ã¢â¬ Ian sighed. We heard Wes shouting at the same time. His voice came from the end of the tunnel, getting closer with each word. Ã¢â¬Å"They're back! Wanda, they're back!Ã¢â¬ It took me less than a second to process, and then I was sprinting. Behind me, Ian mumbled something about wasted effort. I nearly knocked Wes down. Ã¢â¬Å"Where?Ã¢â¬ I gasped. Ã¢â¬Å"In the plaza.Ã¢â¬ And I was off again. I flew into the big garden room with my eyes already searching. It wasn't hard to find them. Jamie was standing at the front of a group of people near the entrance to the southern tunnel. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, Wanda!Ã¢â¬ he yelled, waving. Trudy held his arm as I ran around the edges of the field, as if she were holding him back from running to meet me. I grabbed his shoulders with both hands and pulled him to me. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, Jamie!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Did ya miss me?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Just a tiny bit. Where is everyone? Is everyone home? Is everyone okay?Ã¢â¬ Besides Jamie, Trudy was the only person here who was back from the raid. Everyone else in the little crowd-Lucina, Ruth Ann, Kyle, Travis, Violetta, Reid-was welcoming them home. Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone's back and well,Ã¢â¬ Trudy assured me. My eyes swept the big cave. Ã¢â¬Å"Where are they?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"UhÃ¢â¬ ¦ getting cleaned up, unloadingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I wanted to offer my help-anything that would get me to where Jared was so I could see with my own eyes that he was safe-but I knew I wouldn't be allowed to see where the goods were coming in. Ã¢â¬Å"You look like you need a bath,Ã¢â¬ I told Jamie, rumpling his dirty, knotted hair without letting go of him. Ã¢â¬Å"He's supposed to go lie down,Ã¢â¬ Trudy said. Ã¢â¬Å"Trudy,Ã¢â¬ Jamie muttered, giving her a dark look. Trudy glanced at me quickly, then looked away. Ã¢â¬Å"Lie downÃ¢â¬ ¦?Ã¢â¬ I stared at Jamie, pulling back to get a good look at him. He didn't seem tired-his eyes were bright, and his cheeks flushed under his tan. My eyes raked over him once and then froze on his right leg. There was a ragged hole in his jeans a few inches above his knee. The fabric around the hole was a dark reddish brown, and the ominous color spread in a long stain all the way to the cuff. Blood, Melanie realized with horror. Ã¢â¬Å"Jamie! What happened?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks, Trudy.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"She was going to notice soon enough. C'mon, we'll talk while you limp.Ã¢â¬ Trudy put her arm under his and helped him hop forward one slow step at a time, keeping his weight on his left leg. Ã¢â¬Å"Jamie, tell me what happened!Ã¢â¬ I put my arm around him from the other side, trying to carry as much of his weight as I could. Ã¢â¬Å"It's really stupid. And totally my fault. And it could have happened here.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Tell me.Ã¢â¬ He sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"I tripped with a knife in my hand.Ã¢â¬ I shuddered. Ã¢â¬Å"Shouldn't we be taking you the other way? You need to see Doc.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That's where I'm coming from. That's where we went first.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What did Doc say?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's fine. He cleaned it and bandaged it and said to go lie down.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And have you walk all this way? Why didn't you stay in the hospital?Ã¢â¬ Jamie made a face and glanced up at Trudy, like he was looking for an answer. Ã¢â¬Å"Jamie will be more comfortable on his bed,Ã¢â¬ she suggested. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah,Ã¢â¬ he agreed quickly. Ã¢â¬Å"Who wants to lie around on one of those awful cots?Ã¢â¬ I looked at them and then behind me. The crowd was gone. I could hear their voices echoing back down the southern corridor. What was that about? Mel wondered warily. It occurred to me that Trudy wasn't a much better liar than I was. When she'd said the others from the raid were unloading and cleaning up, there was a false note to her voice. I thought I remembered her eyes flickering to the right, back toward that tunnel. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, kid! Hey, Trudy!Ã¢â¬ Ian had caught up to us. Ã¢â¬Å"Hi, Ian,Ã¢â¬ they greeted him at the same time. Ã¢â¬Å"What happened here?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Fell on a knife,Ã¢â¬ Jamie grunted, ducking his head. Ian laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't think it's funny,Ã¢â¬ I told him, my voice tight. Melanie, frantic with worry in my head, imagined slapping him. I ignored her. Ã¢â¬Å"Could happen to anybody,Ã¢â¬ Ian said, planting a light punch on Jamie's arm. Ã¢â¬Å"Right,Ã¢â¬ Jamie muttered. Ã¢â¬Å"Where's everybody?Ã¢â¬ I watched Trudy from the corner of my eye as she answered him. Ã¢â¬Å"They, uh, had some unloading to finish up.Ã¢â¬ This time her eyes moved toward the southern tunnel very deliberately, and Ian's expression hardened, turned enraged for half a second. Then Trudy glanced back at me and caught me watching. Distract them, Melanie whispered. I looked down at Jamie quickly. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you hungry?Ã¢â¬ I asked him. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"When aren't you hungry?Ã¢â¬ Ian teased. His face was relaxed again. He was better at deception than Trudy. When we reached our room, Jamie sank gratefully onto the big mattress. Ã¢â¬Å"You sure you're okay?Ã¢â¬ I checked. Ã¢â¬Å"It's nothing. Really. Doc says I'll be fine in a few days.Ã¢â¬ I nodded, though I was not convinced. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm going to go clean up,Ã¢â¬ Trudy murmured as she left. Ian propped himself against the wall, going nowhere. Keep your face down when you lie, Melanie suggested. Ã¢â¬Å"Ian?Ã¢â¬ I stared intently at Jamie's bloody leg. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you mind getting us some food? I'm hungry, too.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah. Get us something good.Ã¢â¬ I could feel Ian's eyes on me, but I didn't look up. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay,Ã¢â¬ he agreed. Ã¢â¬Å"I'll be back in just a second.Ã¢â¬ He emphasized the short time. I kept my gaze down, as if I were examining the wound, until I heard his footsteps fade. Ã¢â¬Å"You aren't mad at me?Ã¢â¬ Jamie asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Of course not.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I know you didn't want me to go.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You're safe now; that's all that matters.Ã¢â¬ I patted his arm absentmindedly. Then I got to my feet and let my hair, now chin length, fall forward to hide my face. Ã¢â¬Å"I'll be right back-I forgot something I wanted to tell Ian.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What?Ã¢â¬ he asked, confused by my tone. Ã¢â¬Å"You'll be okay here by yourself?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Course I will,Ã¢â¬ he retorted, sidetracked. I ducked out around the screen before he could ask anything else. The hall was clear, Ian out of sight. I had to hurry. I knew he was already suspicious. He'd noticed that I'd noticed Trudy's awkward and artificial explanation. He wouldn't be gone long. I walked quickly, but didn't run, as I moved through the big plaza. Purposeful, as if I were on an errand. There were only a few people there-Reid, headed for the passageway that led to the bathing pool; Ruth Ann and Heidi, paused by the eastern corridor, chatting; Lily and Wes, their backs to me, holding hands. No one paid me any attention. I stared ahead as if I were not focused on the southern tunnel, only turning in at the very last second. As soon as I was in the pitch-black of the corridor, I sped up, jogging along the familiar path. Some instinct told me this was the same thing-that this was a repeat of the last time Jared and the others had come home from a raid, and everyone was sad, and Doc had gotten drunk, and no one would answer my questions. It was happening again, whatever I wasn't supposed to know about. What I didn't want to know about, according to Ian. I felt prickles on the back of my neck. Maybe I didn't want to know. Yes, you do. We both do. I'm frightened. Me, too. I ran as quietly as I could down the dark tunnel.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
In 1984, Orwell presents the act of rebellion through love. Ã¢â¬Å"Listen. The more men youÃ¢â¬â¢ve had, the most I love you. Do you understand that?Ã¢â¬ this whole quote suggest that they are both rebelling, meaning that Julia has already rebelled in the past by having sex with other men. Also Winston is declaring that the more she rebels the more he would love her, which is also an act of rebellion in itself because love is unauthorized, by Big Brother. Ã¢â¬Å"The mostÃ¢â¬ could suggest that Winston is encouraging everyone to rebel against Big Brother, which could mean that as Julia loves Winston, he is taking advantage of her by telling her that whatever Julia is doing is right that he is totally supporting her. Additionally this could mean that he wanted more people to be corrupt, and everyone to go to the wrong path and disobey Big Brother. Orwell presents the act of rebellion through love because in the Dystopian society there are strict rule that need to be followed, s uch as no having sex for pleasure, and this is clearly an act of rebellion as Julia had sex with lots of party member. Similarly in Romeo and Juliet where Shakespeare is presenting their love by rebelling, they are both willing to disobey the orders of the wise ones just to be with each other. Ã¢â¬Å"Therefore stay yet; thou needÃ¢â¬â¢st not to be goneÃ¢â¬ proposes that Juliet is stubborn, as the Daughter of Capulet; she is used to get what she wants. Additionally Romeo declares to her Ã¢â¬ Let me taÃ¢â¬â¢en, let me be put to deathÃ¢â¬ This could emphasise that he is willing to die for Juliet and stay with her than live his life without her, this clearly shows that he is rebelling against all the rules put upon them, just to stay with Juliet. Ã¢â¬Å"Not to be goneÃ¢â¬ could suggest that Juliet is being bossy as she is ordering him to stay with her. But alternatively this could highlight that as men in the Elizabethan had power over women, and they were patriarchal meaning that Juliet was a bad influence on Romeo, and that she was almost a threat to his manhood. As he accepts defeat Ro meo says Ã¢â¬Å"let me put to deathÃ¢â¬ which could declare that Juliet is RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s weakness and that if someone breaks Juliet, Romeo will also shatter.
The Silk Road was a very interesting time in life time history. The silk Road was the world's first superhighway not literally a single road it consisted of a good network of trade routes connecting China with Central Asia and lands beyond all the way to Rome. Goods were usually transported by larch Caravana it's made up of guides soldiers religious Pilgrims merchants and hundreds of fright bearing camels. The silk Road florist for more than 3000 years and had a major influence on the cultures of Asia Europe and Africa is Vinny Q ask you to become a traveler on the silk Road and to record your experiences at different points on your journey.In this mini to you will examine several documents and then write five journal entries in the voice of a fictionists person traveling the silk Road first choose the type of traveler you wish to be from the collection of district just descriptions on the following page give your traveler a name from the list below and fill out the profile of this p erson using the biological information and your historical imagination.Good Genadijs spread across to soak road for sentries this process of sharing is calling cultural diffusion by historians below are a few examples of goods and ideas that move by way of the silk Road's number one from China silk iron bronze server and mix orange trees paper gunpowder from Central Asia for Gano horses from Africa Ivory and rhinoceros horn from India spices and Buddhism from Europe music and glassware for travelers heading west the OC this town of done Wong was a place to rest and resupply before braving the Western Cody and the Telemac and deserts soon after the fall of hand dynasty.Buddhism monks Buddhist monks begin to dig caves just 10 miles outside of dung cock in many of the caves they built Buddhist shrines over the centuries these caves also became storage vaults for many items brought to Duntonge by Cellpro travelers in ancient times the Telemac and desert was sometimes referred to as the Cody today as then the temperature in the desert reaches over 100Ã °F and rainfall and minimal
Monday, July 29, 2019
Week2 BUSFIN - Assignment Example This profitability ratio also shows the declining performance of Las Vegas Sands Corporation. However, the performance on the company is dependent on economyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance therefore we cannot conclude that this lackluster performance will continue in the future. As for the solvency is concerned, the company has experienced a declining debt to equity ratio which implies that shareholderÃ¢â¬â¢s still place trust on the company and they hold great expectation from the company in the future. Although a D/E ratio greater than 1 is not desirable but Las Vegas Sands Corporation should consider on reducing this ratio to increase its credit worthiness. The financial leverage ratio is similar to Debt to Equity ratio except the fact that it takes equity into the account. These ratios are implying that the company is solvent and can sustain the business in the future through its financing capabilities. The interest coverage ratio shows that the number of times a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s EBIT can cover its interest expense. In year 2008, the company had a positive EBIT but they were not sufficient to cover the interest expense which implies that they were facing a liquidity crisis. Furthermore, in year 2009 the interest coverage ratio further reduced to -0.089 due to its operating expenses being greater than its gross profit. The company needs to concentrate on controlling its operating expenses in order to be
Sunday, July 28, 2019
In the Apology, Socrates claims that the unexamined life is not worth living (38a) - Essay Example Hence there is the dire need for an individual to work for the goal of self-realization. The claim of Socrates that Ã¢â¬Å"the unexamined life is not worth livingÃ¢â¬ refers to the spiritual life of an individual. The real achievement and advancement towards the goal of life is possible only through self-realization. Instead of chasing the external world for aggrandizement of material possessions, an individual has to commence the journey of the inner world to understand and experience of the true meaning of life. Socrates argues that goodness is associated with wisdom and in the pursuit of that supreme wisdom an individual can enjoy life and be happy in the real sense of the term. If an individual ceases to question himself, he will act unreasonably, without applying the power of discrimination, he will not be able to distinguish between good and bad actions. Without the spiritual values, the life of humankind is no better than animals. A good life is twice-blessed. The one who is experiencing happiness in life and those around him, both become happy. The final option for an individual is to pursue knowledge of the self by application of principles of wisdom. Socrates articulates if he were to abandon the examined life, without wisdom and self-knowledge, he would be accepting the option of death. So, the battle royal has been going on for Ages, and it has not been possible for the humankind to find a permanent solution for problems related to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s external world and the inner world. Socrates is not a conservative philosopher, or a philosopher with reservations. He attaches importance to life only if it is applied for the purpose of self-realization. All other applications to life are transient in nature and as such they are without real substance. If an individual attaches more importance to secular life in preference to spiritual pursuits, he
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Conclusion - Essay Example The high quality of products and excellent customer friendly services make CafÃ © very attractive place to relax. There is effective communication across the workforce which has promoted greater understanding across the diverse workforce (Mullins, 2010). Indeed, if the management continues to engage its employees meaningfully and promotes participatory approach that inculcates strong sense of shared values, it would become the best coffee shop of the town. CafÃ © Bleu enjoys excellent location near the University of Miami which could be exploited in many ways. As most of its employees are young students, CafÃ © could offer the student community with part time jobs to meet the challenges of its growing clientele and popularity. The management can also look out for new ideas from the University students who come here for a cup of coffee. Growth and innovative thinking go hand in hand (Meyer at al., 2007). Indeed, it could be the key management strategy to enhance the appeal of the CafÃ © for students and people in
Friday, July 26, 2019
A story - Essay Example They always treat me in a way, as if I still belong to the diaper class. After all that, some answers began screwing up, I heard a tone at the back of my ears, Ã¢â¬Å"come on honey, relax, everything will be okay, I believe it will not end up in a fight but this time, your mother especially, will be the first to understand that you are now big enough to be made for choices and followed around so that no mistakes are made. Take it easy because such days are over, do you not just get it? You are an adult by this time in twenty.Ã¢â¬ Supper was approaching, and the words gave me more than enough strength. This is all what I needed. Ã¢â¬Å"Honey, honey,Ã¢â¬ all this time was in my room pretending to do some homework when I heard my nanny voice calling, Ã¢â¬Å"it is supper time, food is ready and we all waiting for you in the dining, come over men.Ã¢â¬ I stayed up and grabbed a chair, after some minutes of prayer, some force came in me, and Ã¢â¬Å"this is probably the perfect chance to begin your conviction, because everyone will be spending some precious time with their food.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, mum, daÃ¢â¬ ¦dad,Ã¢â¬ I then went mute. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, they were ready to hear from me. Speak out dear.Ã¢â¬ It was so sweet to hear both of my parents eager to what I would say. These gave me some courage; I cleared my throat, and both parents stared at each other, and the words flowed through my mouth. Ã¢â¬Å"Was hoping you as my parents would allow me go on a trip, this time all by myself, mum, dad.Ã¢â¬ The immediate response I was given was a heavy stare, from my dad, he seem shocked, and, on the other hand, my mum was uttering words to me of which my mind went blank, and I managed to grab a few. Ã¢â¬Å"Tell us this is not happening? What has come over you? You very well know how the world is, full of vices, and you tell us you need permission to do some travelling alone? How the hell are we supposed to make
Thursday, July 25, 2019
IMC Analysis - Assignment Example As it can be seen in the videos, CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s big idea has been to set up interactive kiosks at different locations to spread and express the idea of happiness which the brand carries (Youtube, 2010; Coca-cola.com, 2012). The main purpose of Coke conducting these activations is to spread happiness in any form. This can be seen from the idea of Coke Happiness Machines which were installed in almost all major markets of Coke. Hence, Coke has successfully integrated its idea of giving spreading happiness through their brand activation campaigns (The Coca-Cola Company, 2009). In order to connect to the people, Coke revamps its packaging every now and then to engage the consumers with the brand. For example, in a CSR drive to save the Polar bears, Coca Cola revamped its packaging by adding Polar bears on the can for a specific period of time (The Coca-Cola Company, 2012). Besides this, to integrate their Super Bowl campaign which included commercials featuring Polar bears, Coke aimed to reduce its emissions by switching to hybrid trucks besides introducing biodiesel technologies (exploringpublicrelations.com, 2008). However, the main theme of this campaign was to save the Polar bears and not to create happiness as per its global brand value (exploringpublicrelations.com, 2008). Coke has been a long standing partner with soccer and to grab the opportunity of FIFA 2010, it gave a chance to consumers to win free tickets to FIFA through a lucky draw and even redesigned Coke Zero can to accommodate the scheme where the consumers would just need to look for the special can with a certain code which they would enter on the website www.cokezone.co.uk. They could even enter as many entries as they wished ((The Coca-Cola Company, 2009; The Coca-Cola Company, 2012). All of CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s endeavors were focused towards one common goal of giving people some
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Internet - Essay Example The living standards of the public increased a lot as a result of the introduction of internet. Nobody has any doubt about the contributions of internet in enhancing communication. No other medium is capable of communicating with people as quickly as internet does. Social networking services like facebook, myspace, orkut etc are helping the people to share information instantly and effectively in a virtual world. When it comes to instant communication, internet always gets priority over other channels of communication. Communication is an area in which internet brought revolutionary changes in the society. Earlier, print sources, television, radio etc were the prominent media of communication in the society. However, these media are incapable of delivering instant information to the public as internet does. Newspapers and televisions require enough time to collect news, edit it, and print/transmit it to the readers/viewers. On the other hand, internet is capable of delivering the new s instantly to the public. ... The difficulties and problems associated in locating specific information in newspapers or printed sources have been eliminated with the introduction of electronic media like internet. It is easy for the readers to eliminate unwanted information quickly so that they can concentrate more only on the specific information they were searching for while using internet. It is a fact that most of the newspapers contain large number of advertisements and the retrieval of specific information from newspaper is difficult. Internet provides answer to such messed up reading styles; it helps the readers to avoid unwanted things instantly and to locate the required information instantly. The enhancement of communication using internet resulted in the development of new life styles in the society. Earlier, people visit the houses of their friends and relatives to exchange their regards and greetings. Now all such things are happening in the virtual world. For sending, birth day greetings, wedding i nvitations and greetings etc people are making use of internet. It is a fact that virtual socializing gives enough flexibility in sending greetings and conveying ideas. The introduction of internet and the subsequent development of social networking services helped the people to increase their virtual socializing activities more than their real face to face socializing activities. It is possible to communicate with anybody through internet even when a person travels from one place to another. Audio and video conferencing facilities provided by internet help people to communicate with others just like a face to face meeting. Ã¢â¬Å"The mobile workforce requires people to travel more frequently for work, leaving friends and family behind, and
Police Case Scenarios - Essay Example Taking the case where the two police officers were on a patrol on high Ã¢â¬â crime area, the officers were in a position and had the right to arrest the passenger. First was to make the rights to known to the passenger by telling them that they had the right to keep quiet, and secondly elaborate to the passenger why he or she was to remain silent. The reason to this was because any word could be used against the suspect who was the passenger in a court of law. After conducting the arrest, the officers were to explain to the suspect of the importance of having an attorney. The state would appoint one for the suspect to represent him or her in the jury or court of law in case the suspect could not afford an attorney. The fact that the woman leaning on the window was walking away was enough sign that whatever activity that was going on in and outside the car might not be legal. When the police officers got closer to the car, the passenger acted suspiciously and began to fidget and shove the hand downwards. There was suspicion bearing in mind that the woman leaning at the window had walked away. The police officers were right to present the passengerÃ¢â¬â¢s motion to suppress the seized evidence as evidence to the court. At arrival, the passenger shoved down the hands. Although there is circumstantial evidence, it will still be relied upon because of the nature in which the officers took the evidence. The series of events that occurred from the beginning make it circumstantial combined with physical evidence because cocaine was in the car. The officers made a judgment quickly to tell the suspect to put the hands where they are visible. The judgment was after the suspect shoved the hands downwards and complied only after the police officer drew his gun and gave the command. The police officer who made the arrest formed the correct opinion because it was a possible fact that maybe the suspect was reaching out for a gun, and the hands were
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
The actual economic bailout of Wall Street and the individual homeowner bailout by Jeffrey Fu - Essay Example The federal regulation kept the interest on the loans low, which gave room for Fannie Mae. Its counterpart, Freddie Mac, bought billions of dollars and then fed the market to feed them, of which they were risky mortgages bought. The subprime mortgages initially aimed at borrowers who had low or poor credit cases or histories. A great number of people invested and went into a great deal of debt, since the house prices were high till when they started dropping, which brought about the huge losses (NRCC 1). This paper is a comparison and contrast of the actual economic bailout plan of Wall Street and the individual home owner bailout plan. Mortgage meltdown is a common term used to mean subprime mortgage crisis due to the credit crisis in 2008 (Bianco & Pachkowski 1). There were two proposed bailout plans. First was the Economic Bailout Plan of Wall Street announced by Henry Paulson, that holds reverse auctions (Miron 5). A newer expanded version of the bill passed included the buying o f equity positions in the banks, reducing the interest rates and expansion of the deposition insurance. The other plan is Individual HomeownerÃ¢â¬â¢s Bailout Plan that has two versions where in one version, the government helps by giving a loan paid as soon as one is financially stable, and the other comes in form of a government grant. In both cases, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t involve the principal reduction on the value of the house, and payment is done directly to the mortgage provider. The government share is the same as the percentage reduction in the income of the home owner and it ceases when the financial state is restored. The economic bailout plan has the reverse auctions whereby they buy the assets troubled or in debt of the home financial institutions. Also, the use of taxpayer money to buy equity positions in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest banks. All these are aimed to try to stabilize the financial markets and avoid the eventual bank failures and credit freeze that comes with i t (Miron 7). This approach is aimed at taking the taxpayers money to the investors and insured depositors. The home owners on the other hand will keep on plunging into deeper debts. The individual home ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s bailout plan uses the taxpayerÃ¢â¬â¢s money just as the economic bailout plan, but in this case, the government uses the money to try to keep the house with the home owner in either giving a loan or as grant. In case of failure to pay up, the house is put up for foreclosure (Foote, Fuhrer, Mauskopf & Willen 2). At the end of 2005, the housing industry became expensive and this in turn would trickle down to the banks, hence the need to make a plan to avoid the collapse of the major banks came to play. The economic plan stated the buying of equity positions in the major or bigger banks using the taxpayerÃ¢â¬â¢s money. The plan allowed for the buying of equity positions to Freddie and Fannie in case of a collapse or destruction, using the taxpayerÃ¢â¬â¢s money. This will create a separate entity that is a regulator to Freddie and Fannie, and Federal Home Loan Bank system (NRCC 2). This in turn raises the debt pool. These government institutions enjoy a great deal of bailout money, but there is also the fact that cannot stop the decline of these institutions, and still need an increase in the bailout money (Weiss & Larson 1). The individual bailout plan focuses on the home owner and uses a different approach to get the same results. This approach is designed to help the home owner raise money for the mortgage, and the fact that it is directly paid to the mortgage providers, makes it easier to meet this
Monday, July 22, 2019
The Effects of Stress Among Female Registered Nurses Essay Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace. (Lambert and Lambert 2010, NursesÃ¢â¬â¢ workplace stressors and coping strategies). In Baguio City, hospital nurses are not spared from the environmental culprit called stress. They are too prone to this even a seated individual can easily observe, but stress as they say always come with the work, nurses chose to be of service to the sick, and sick people are in the verge of experiencing most of the stresses, sometimes the nurses who takes good care of them are the absorbers to some of these stresses. Possibly yet, stress is also present in the work place when nurses are overworked and unavoidably there are build up tension among themselves causing now a strained working relationship. According to Betty Neuman, a nurse theorist she said that stressful environment causes the majority of illnesses and when it becomes severe and neglected it could lead to death. Stress has been categorized as an antecedent or stimulus, as a consequence or response, and as an interaction. It has been studied from many different frameworks (or perspectives? ). For example, Selye proposed a physiological assessment that supports considering the association between stress and illness. Conversely, Lazarus advocated a psychological view in which stress is Ã¢â¬Å"a particular relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well-being. Ã¢â¬ Nevertheless, stress has been regarded as an occupational hazard since the mid-1950. In fact, occupational stress has been cited as a significant health problem. Work stress in nursing was first assessed in 1960 when Menzies identified four sources of anxiety among nurses: patient care, decision making, taking responsibility, and change. The nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s role has long been regarded as stress-filled based upon the physical labor, human suffering, work hours, staffing, and interpersonal relationships that are central to the work nurses do. Since the mid-1980s, however, nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ work stress may be escalating due to the increasing use of technology, continuing rises in health care costs, and turbulence within the work environment. (B. M. Jennings, 2010, Work Stress and Burnout among Nurses). The writerÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion with regards to the sudden rise and use of technology in the hospital, these are true and stressful especially among older nurses. Some of them feel intimidated about it since they need to learn how to use computerized gadgets and equipments needed to fasten treatment. Some institutions require knowledge to advance technology in order to be hired, some they assume all nurses are computer literate, if they are not; this becomes a failure to their evaluation which later on could serve as basis for their termination a major impact to the life of a nurse. Workplace stress can be described as the physical and emotional outcomes that occur when there is disparity between the demands of the job and the amount of control the individual has in meeting those demands. Anytime stress occurs, it is an indication that the demands placed upon the person have exceeded the persons personal resources, whether these resources are physical, emotional, economic, social, or spiritual. Thus, workplace stress occurs when the challenges and demands of work become excessive, the pressures of the workplace exceed the workers ability to handle them, and job satisfaction turns to frustration and exhaustion. (Lambert and Lambert, 2010). Nevertheless, work stress and burnout remain significant concerns in nursing, affecting both individuals and organizations. For the individual nurse, regardless of whether stress is perceived positively or negatively, the neuroendocrine response yields physiologic reactions that may ultimately contribute to illness. In the health care organization, work stress may contribute to absenteeism and turnover, both of which detract from the quality of care. Hospitals in particular are facing a workforce crisis. The demand for acute care services is increasing concurrently with changing career expectations among potential health care workers and growing dissatisfaction among existing hospital staff. By turning toxic work environments into healthy workplaces, researchers and nurse leaders believe that improvements can be realized in recruitment and retention of nurses, job satisfaction for all health care staff, and patient outcomes particularly those related patient safety (B. M. Jennings, Chapter26 Work Stress and Burnout among Nurses: Role of the Work Environment and Working Conditions). In one article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Job Stressors and Coping Mechanisms among Emergency Department Nurses in the Armed Force Hospitals in TaiwanÃ¢â¬ it states that, nurses, as one of the professional service groups, tend to be exposed to extreme workloads. Their works are generally characterized by having a high contagious potential, being labor-intensive, having an overwhelming job shifting, and experiencing malicious complaints from patients. Compare to other general and professional service jobs, nursing requires handling complicated and dynamic occurrences under strict time pressures. Studies have generally revealed that continuously excessive workloads tend to lower their job satisfaction and deteriorate in turnover intentions. These contextual difficulties indeed continuously challenge a nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s temper and professional performance. This may be particularly true for nurses in the emergency departments of the AFH. (Wei-Wen Liu, Feng-Chuan Pan, Pei-Chi wen Sen-Ji Chen, Su-Hui-Lin, 2010). In another study entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Effects of job rotation and role stress among nurses on job satisfaction and organizational commitmentÃ¢â¬ , they mentioned that Job rotation inspires nurses to achieve higher performance, allowing continuous growth at work, extended knowledge and skill, and increasing clinic patient care-taking quality. Scholars have all proposed that job rotation may help employees to acquire multiple capabilities and expand vision, and that it can be an approach to reduce job burnout. But emotional pressure often occurs in the work environment where interpersonal interactions are highly involved. Especially, the nurses working at hospitals not only implement independent and professional nursing activities in accordance with doctors advice, but take responsibility for any immediate threat to patients lives as well. Thus, the importance of nurses is undeniable, and the influence of urses qualities and capabilities on medical care quality can never be ignored. Therefore, the primary concern of the practical field of medical care is to exhaustively recognize how role stress among nurses could affect their job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and effectively utilize the job rotation system to enhance and develop nurses job satisfaction and organizational commitment, in order to promote competitive advantages (Wen-Hsien Ho, Ching S. Chang, Ying-Ling Shih and Rong-Da Liang, 2010, Effects of Job Rotation and role stress among nurses on job satisfaction and organizational Commitment). It is the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view that stressful lives among nurses are sometimes not all related to work, some nurses go to work stressed. This maybe due to presence of children, relationships or overworked at home so that when they report for work they are already exhausted and becomes exhausted all the more if there are many patients to attend to. These are also true most especially among women, since they do much of the work at home; attending to school activities of their children and attending to the needs of the whole family, physically, financially, and socially they become vulnerable to stress and illness. Despite all the work stress that the nurses endure, there are also some ways that help nurses cope with stress. To keep them physically, emotionally, and mentally stable if not strong, they divert their attention to activities which they consider relaxing. Nurses learn techniques on how to control their temper when being stressed at work, for some they just endure tensions and exhaustion but once they reached home it is there that they find comfort and peace of mind, but to others, home sometimes adds to more stress, so they prefer staying out like malling. In an article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"NursesÃ¢â¬â¢ Workplace stressors and coping strategiesÃ¢â¬ it describes strategies to help nurses cope; coping can be defined as the constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person. Coping activities may be problem-focused in that they are directed externally and involve attempts to manage or change the problem causing the stress. On the other hand, coping activities may be emotion-focused in that they are internally directed and involve attempts to alleviate emotional distress. Examples of problem-focused coping includes problem-solving activities, recognizing ones role in solving a problem and confronting the situation by using some degree of risk-taking behavior; while emotion-focused coping includes wishful thinking, avoidance of confrontive behavior, and detachment or disengagement from the situation. This study will use the Integrative Transactional Process Model by Beehr and Schuler to guide on the effects of stress among registered Nurses in the workplace. According to the Integrative Transactional Process Model by Beehr schulerÃ¢â¬â¢s 1982, it corporate environmental stressors, perceptions, the stress response and stress outcomes, plus a host of moderator variables. The environmental stressors pertain to what the registered nurse encounters in his/her workplace perceived as stressful stimuli. The coping mechanisms that registered nurses utilize in combating the effect of stress to her/himself pertains to the perceptions and the response of a registered nurse to stress. This method model is in accordance with LazaruÃ¢â¬â¢s conceptualization of stress by focusing on the role of cognitive appraisal (individual perception) which also highlights the nature of the (mis) fit between the organism and the environmental demands. The discrepancy between, whether challenges or goals, and the way the person perceives his potential responses to his demands cognitive stress. It is the personÃ¢â¬â¢s own perception of the stressful event and the appraisal of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to cope that stress. Time (duration of stress) is incorporated through the separation of the immediate perception of stress and longer term response segment of model. The name of the model implies that its relationship is reciprocal, happens across time and/or stressor and integrated diverse areas of theory. This had implied the importance of time in the stress process. That is why the years of service and the age of the registered nurse was taken as variables in the scope of the study. Individual and contextual differences such as organizational changes, job qualities personal experiences, and individual needs/values are given central role in the models which are also considered strengths of this model. These qualities correlate to the variables specifically to the ward assignments of these registered nurses and their working relationship among nurse supervisors and other health personnel. Their everyday encounter in the workplace give them the opportunity to gain experience which maybe a nurturing or bad experience that may contribute to the stress of the registered nurse. This model considers the individual and contextual differences among registered nurses which in the study pertaining to their age and gender. The aim of the study is to find out the following effects of stress among registered nurses in the workplace. It specifically aims to find answers to the questions: 1. ) what are the effects of stress among registered nurses in the workplace considering the following a. ) Physical health b. ) Emotional health c. ) Mental health 2. ) Is there a significant difference on the effects of stress among registered nurses considering the following a. Age b) Gender and c. )Years of service in the hospital, 3. ) Is there a significant difference on the effects of stress among registered nurses when assigned to a. ) Emergency ward b. ) Operating Room c. ) Surgical ward, and lastly, 4) What are the coping mechanisms utilized by registered nurses to overcome stress in the workplace? Ã This study is for the nurses themselves, the outcome of this will serve as a guide for them to determine, where thus the highest stress related factor occur in the lives of hospital nurses particularly the female nurses. It will be an eye opener for them in a way that they will know that simple interaction among other people could mean two different things; it can be negative or positive in effect that could cause stress. To the nursing profession especially in the field of research, this study would serve as a tool to use, as a source of information and guide not only among nurses but to other health practitioners as well, from this output, they can yield flyers or pamphlets entitled Ã¢â¬Å"what causes stress in the workplaceÃ¢â¬ , which would contain vital informationÃ¢â¬â¢s about stress, its causes and effects to ourselves and to the people that surrounds us. Lastly, to the Hospital administrators, this research would serve as a source of information, so that they will become aware, up to what extent does stress do among workers. This could also serve as basis in giving rest days among workers when needed. Ã¢â¬Å"A well rested employee becomes a productive, efficient and successful employeeÃ¢â¬ . The study will utilize a questionnaire in the form of a self-assessment checklist that was developed by the researchers based on review of literatures. The first part of the questionnaire is a letter to the respondents that informs them of the purpose of the study to give full disclosure of information. The second part includes the demographic data inclusive of name (which is optional) and workplace of the respondents, followed by the questionnaire proper. This will be answered by the respondents thru checking the correct rating in assessing the Effects of Stress among Registered Nurses in the Workplace. The questionnaire will be subjected by a research expert, Ms. Geraldine D. Delson, M.A.N. She was chosen to validate the questionnaire for the reason that she is an instructor in the SLU- School of Nursing, major in Psychiatry and therefore she is well-knowledgeable on the topic. She will be asked to evaluate the relevance of the items in the questionnaire using a four-point scale, where a score of 1 is not relevant, 2 as somewhat relevant, 3 as quite relevant and 4 as very relevant. After rating, all the items with a score of 3 and 4 will be counted and divided by the total number of items in the questionnaire. Her comments and suggestions will be taken into consideration during the revision of the tool. Reliability of the questionnaire will be subjected to a preliminary item analysis. The questionnaire will be distributed to thirty (30) staff nurses having their duty at the operating room, emergency ward and medical-surgical ward of SLU-Hospital of the Sacred Heart. After answering, the questionnaires will be collected and will be asked for their comments and feedbacks regarding the questionnaire. Answers in the tool will be checked by the researchers to check for presence of ambiguity. Their comments will be taken into consideration in the revision of the tool before finally floating it. In the data gathering procedure, initially, the researchers will be giving a letter to the Chief Administrator of the Hospital informing her about the purpose of the study and that their respective Institution is chosen to be the locale wherein a number of nurses having their duty there will be taken as the respondents. Also, the letter will ask for permission to float questionnaires to the chosen respondents. After granted the permission, data gathering follows. During the data collection, the researchers will be given different hospital wards based from the selected special wards of SLU-Hospital of the Sacred Heart where they will collect data. In all the special wards chosen, the researchers will introduce themselves to the respondents and will establish rapport. The researchers will also inform the participants of the purpose and nature of the study before consent will be taken. In cases wherein the respondents decline to be part of the study, their decision will be respected. For the respondents who will agree, the researchers will present the checklist and they will give instructions as to how they will answer it. After giving the necessary instructions and reminders, the respondents will be given enough time to answer the questionnaire. The researchers will maintain a distance of 1-2 meters from the respondents while the questionnaires are being answered. To ensure anonymity, names will not be required to be written. The researchers will emphasize that any unanswered item will make their whole answers invalid. To prevent such occurrence, the researchers will stay with the respondents and double check on the answers of the questionnaire once it is passed to the researcher. After the respondents finish answering the checklist, the researchers will retrieve it and the researchersÃ¢â¬â¢ gratitude for participation will be expressed. The researchers will assure the respondents that they will be informed of the results of the study. After collecting the checklist, the researchers will check it for any unanswered item. All incompletely filled out questionnaire will be disregarded. The data collected will be collated, tabulated, organized and analyzed. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe and summarize the data that will be gathered, making the data readily comprehensible. Through it, the researchers will be able to identify significant differences between the variables of the study. Frequency count and percentage (Sanchez, 1988) will be utilized to measure and compare data such as age, total number of male and female nurse respondents and years of service. For the physical, emotional and mental health effects, as well as the effects on whether they are nurses assigned at the operating room, emergency department or the surgical department, frequency count, and the coping mechanisms utilized, weighted mean and ranking will be used. Weighted mean measures the average of the responses (f) in relation to the weight or the rating (r) allotted to the said response. To determine the significant difference on the respondents responses on the effects of stress among registered nurses in the workplace, nurses are grouped based on age and gender, the F-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA) test ( Tan, 1997) will be utilized. A statistical technique designed to whether the means of more than two quantitative populations are equal. The variances are used to test the quality of more than two populations. The effects of stress among registered nurses are categorized according to physical health, mental health and emotional health. The study was conducted among registered nurses of SLU-Hospital of the Sacred Heart regardless of gender, and those who are twenty five years of age and above, assigned at the operating room, emergency and surgical ward. The nurse respondents are also categorized according to their number of years in service After the researchers collected, collated, tabulated and organized the data, results were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe and summarize the data that were gathered. Through it, the researchers were able to identify the significant differences between variables of the study. In table one (1), weighted mean and ranking were used, weighted mean measures the average of the responses. Looking at the table, in category one (1) effects of stress among nurses in their physical health, question number one (1) increase in overall sickness absence has the highest mean score of 3.1, while question number three (3) I do not want to go to work early garnered the least mean score of 2.4, meaning most of the nurses assigned at the operating room, emergency ward and surgical ward when under physical stress opt to absent from work by filing a sick leave. And only few nurses do not want to report to work early when under stress. Second category which is the effect of stress in the mental health of nurses, question number eight (8) conflicts arise with colleagues, garnered the highest mean score which is 2.8 while question number six (6) I have ethical problems with my job, garnered the lowest mean of 2.1, while questions 11, 13, 14,15,16,17 and 19 (please refer to table 3) are all ranked as second question with the highest mean score of 2.6 and 2.7 respectively. The highest result means that nurses when under stress have this tendency to create tension at work and lots of misunderstandings happen between and among them, which sometimes become evident when they are doing their job then suddenly commit mistakes. Then it is good that the lowest mean score is number six, having ethical problems with job, meaning nurses despite stressors and other problems, they still respect each other and remain professional when dealing with it. The third and last category which is effect of stress to nurses in their emotional health, question number twenty five (25) I feel overloaded at work has the highest mean score which is 2.7, while question numbers twenty seven (27) my relationship with co-workers are poor and twenty eight (28) poor relationship with patients, are the two with the least mean score of 2.2 respectively. The meaning of the highest result which is I feel overloaded at work goes to show that nurses becomes work engine at the hospital, this could be due to under staffing or un equal division of work load. While it is a good remark that number 27 and 28 garnered the lowest mean score, because poor relationship with co-workers as well as with patients does not bring out the best in a nurse and in nursing service. In an article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"NursesÃ¢â¬â¢ workplace stressors and coping strategiesÃ¢â¬ , it defined stress as the physical and emotional outcomes that occur when there is disparity between the demands of the job and the amount of control the individual has in meeting those demands. Table two (2) is the coping mechanisms used by nurses when under stress in the workplace. Weighted mean and ranking are the statistical treatment used to determine the results. Coping mechanism number five (5) I say no to overtime if I do not feel happy to do it garnered the highest mean score of 3.4, while coping mechanisms numbers two (2) I exercise regularly and number thirteen (13) I allow myself to feel angry and express this in a safe way have the least mean score of 2.4, meaning nurses are but human beings, they feel and they learn to say no when it comes to overtime because of exhaustion. They reach the point when they are totally burn-out. In an article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Stress ManagementÃ¢â¬ , it says that these stressors can lead to the classic Ã¢â¬Å"burn-outÃ¢â¬ syndrome. Instead of persisting until this happens, nurses can learn more effective coping strategies, become self-aware, acknowledge their own limitations, and acquire emotion-fcused and problem-solving skills (Selye, 1956). While that is the highest result, we come to the lowest which are numbers two and thirteen. Exercising regularly got a low mean score most probably because nurses when they get home from work they are already tired and there is no more time for them to do some exercising. While the latter expressing anger the safe way, it got also a low score most probably because it was not clear to the respondents what was meant by safe way to express anger. Safe way can be counting from one to one hundred, inhaling and exhaling until the body feels calm. Or maybe drinking or eating your favorite dish, food can become an outlet of anger; these are few ways of safe outlet for anger.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Drug Action On Gut Motility Biology Essay Describe and explain the effect of field stimulation on ileum contraction? The experiment aims to determine the functional role of different drugs like morphine, atropine or naloxone on contraction of guinea pig ileum using transmural stimulation or acetylcholine applied exogenously. The transmural stimulation is given with an initial pulse width of 0.5ms, frequency 0.1Hz and gradually increasing the voltage until we get a measurable contraction. The transmural stimulation, given to the guinea pig ileum acts on enteric nervous system lining the gastrointestinal system controlling GIT , produces an action potential at the membrane causing depolarisation and permeable to calcium (ca+2) ion and leads to increase in ca+2 ion concentration through voltage gated ca +2 channel. This causes release of acetylcholine (ACh) at synaptic cleft, which are directed to bind with muscuranic (M3) receptors. These act by G- protein couple receptors mechanism. Gs Protein activates phospholipase C (PLC), catalysis the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides, (the phospholipids found within the cell membrane) generates two second messengers inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These second messengers, influence the protein phosphorylation and effectively regulates the intracellular ca+2 concentration. The IP3 formed binds with the IP 3 receptor and control the release of ca+2 from intracellular store. The DAG mainly activates membr ance-bound protein kinase, protein kinase C (PKC) , have vast cellular distribution and phosphorylate different proteins and become reason for raised intracellular ca+2 concentration causing contraction. These two second messengers initiate the contraction of ileum by field stimulation. 2 . a . Molar concentration morphine Vs contractile response of field stimulated tissue (in mm) Table showing the contractile response (mm) of morphine on field stimulated guinea pig ileum at different molar concentrations Concentration of Morphine (M) Contractile response (mm) 1 -10-10 92 3 -10-10 91 1 -10-9 90 3 -10-9 88 1 -10-8 82 3 -10-8 64 1 -10-7 36 3 -10-7 30 1 -10-6 27 3 -10-6 26 1 -10-5 24 Fig .a. showing the effect of different concentrations of morphine on guinea pig ileum measuring contractile response in mm b. The logarithm of the molar concentration morphine Vs contractile response of field stimulated tissue (in mm) Table showing the different contractile response at varying logarithm of molar concentration of morphine on guinea pig ileum Log Concentration of Morphine (M) Contractile response (mm) -10 92 -9.522878745 91 -9 90 -8.522878745 88 -8 82 -7.522878745 64 -7 36 -6.522878745 30 -6 27 -5.522878745 26 -5 24 Fig. b. Graph showing the effect of log concentration of morphine on guinea pig ileum measuring contractile response (in mm) c. Molar concentration morphine Vs % relaxation of stimulated tissue. Table showing, the % relaxation of stimulated tissue at different molar concentration of morphine. Concentration of Morphine (M) Percentage relaxation of stimulated tissue (%) 1 -10-10 0 3 -10-10 1.086 1 -10-9 2.222 3 -10-9 4.347 1 -10-8 11.111 3 -10-8 30.434 1 -10-7 60.869 3 -10-7 67.391 1 -10-6 70.652 3 -10-6 71.739 1 -10-5 73.913 Fig. c . Graph showing the % relaxation of stimulated tissue of guinea pig ileum at different molar concentration of morphine. d. Molar concentration of acetylcholine Vs contractile response in unstimulated tissue (in mm) Table showing the contractile response of unstimulated tissue (in mm) at different molar concentration of acetylcholine (M) Molar concentration of Ach (M) Contractile Response (mm) 1 -10-8 17 3 -10-8 37 1 -10-7 49 3 -10-7 58 1 -10-6 59 3 -10-6 59 Fig. d. Graph showing the contractile response (in mm) on unstimulated tissue of guinea pig ileum at different concentration of acetylcholine e. The logarithm of the molar concentration acetylcholine Vs contractile response in unstimulated tissue (in mm) Table showing, contractile response (in mm) of unstimulated tissue at different concentrations of acetylcholine. Log Concentration of acetylcholine (M) Contractile Response (mm) -8 17 -7.522878745 37 -7 49 -6.522878745 58 -6 59 -5.522878745 59 Fig. e. Graph showing contractile response (in mm) of unstimulate tissue of guinea pig ileum at different log concentration of morphine. 3. Explain the effects of morphine on field stimulated-induced contractions and how/why this is affected by atropine and naloxone? Morphine is an opioid analgesic drug acts on opioid receptors. There are three major subgroups under opiod receptors: Ã µ (mu), Ã ´ (delta) and Ã º (kappa) receptors. Morphine mostly acts on Ã µ receptors. From the graph, during field stimulation-contraction, on addition of morphine of 0.1nM concentration it does not show any much effect initially, but on increasing concentration of morphine it shows gradual decrease in contractile response and sudden downfall of response by half from 100nM to 300nM and then stabilise with little varying response (in mm) in further concentration. This is due to, when morphine is added to the bath of field stimulated-induced contraction the activation of opioid receptors (Ã µ), via Gi- protein, which inhibits adenyly cyclase, thus decrease in cAMP formation, leading to closing of ca+2 channels and decrease in muscle contraction by inhibting release of ACh at synaptic region. Naloxone acts as competitive antagonist at Ã µ, Ã ´, Ã º receptors. It is also used as counter the overdose of opioid molecules. When naloxone is added to the field stimulated guinea pig ileum, which is having morphine of certain dose causing dose-dependent decrease in response. The naloxone, acts as competitive antagonist of morphine which replaces the morphine occupied at opioid receptors and reduces the available receptors for morphine to bind and leads to reversing the morphine effect towards field-stimulated contraction. So, the response increases gradually with increase in concentration of naloxone from 200nM to 1000nM and then 3000nM. This shows effective competitive antagonism of naloxone towards morphine activity. In case of atropine, the graph shows, on addition of atropine there is a slightly decrease in response initially and then gradually fall in response due to action of atropine as antagonist at Ach receptor, which occupies the M3 receptor and inhibits the contraction via G-protein receptor mechanism. 4. Explain the observed effects of morphine, naloxone and atropine an Ach-induced contractions and relate this to the effects on field stimulation. From the graph, we know that the morphine and naloxone do not show much significant effect on ACh-induced contraction on guinea pig ileum than field stimulated contratcion. But the atropine show a significant effect on ACh- induced contraction. During field stimulation, the morphine acts via Gi protien (adenyly cylase inhibition) and inhibits cAMP formation and decrease ca+2 concentration and effect the ACh release at synaptic cleft (endogenous). But in the ACh-induced contraction, ACh is available exogenous to occupy the M3 receptors and intiate contraction, showing morphine does not much effect its action as in graph it slightly inhibits just 0.4mm. Naloxone, act as opioid receptor antagonist, may not act on Muscarinic receptors, show no much effect on ACh-induced contraction as ACh in exogenous can direct act on M3 receptors as in graph and which is different in case of field stimulated contratile response, inhibits the morphine action and increases ACh at synaptic region producing significant contraction. Atropine, is a muscarinic (M3) receptor antagonist, the graph shows a significant effect on ACh-induced contractions by atropine. Atropine as competitive antagonist, added to bath occupies the M3 receptors much faster than ACh and inhibits its action, which inturn inhibits ileum contraction.
Theoretical And Practical Approach To Theatre Making Theatre Essay This piece uncovers both the physiological and scientific actions behind the presentation of the voice. As an actor, theatre practitioner or theorist, we become aware that the presentation of communication is not a mere ability to speak, but an action from a complex organ which is bound up with our emotions and understanding which directs our physiological reflexes. For Linklater, the conveying of emotion must mean the feeling of emotion since our voice is powered by our very breath. Breath is chemically and physically linked to the bodys capacity and state of serenity. The natural relaxed voice occurs when the body is harmonious, relaxed and warm but any element of stress, excitement distraction can cause breath influxes which create tension and resonance which creates a new tone and inflection. (Linklater, 1976) Linklaters next piece continues that communication with the voice is not always the conveying of speech. However, in Western theatre it is recognised that speech and language is a primary form of expression. The voice and the actor must therefore become one. Both must be in their neutral state but not joined as they are in the actors human life but rejoined, both neutral and aligned to negotiate the new adornment of character in which to convey new expression. In this sense the actors own imagery behind their speech must be put aside and a new imagery must come from the character, this must occur organically, through exercises and development. Only here can the actor and their voice become unique and spontaneous in their role. Furthermore the learning of lines must be absorbed into the heart creating an understanding between the actor and their role. The actor must know more than the character in order to respond instinctively and naturally vocally within the action. (Linklater, 2006) Berry: Vocal Development In this chapter Berry focuses on the theory behind the vocal exercises he developed. These exercises help to convey how Linklaters ideas can be worked. For Berry the voice of the actor must be separated from the voice of the person and preconceived ideas. The way the individual communicates, their own anxieties and tensions must be removed in order to release full vocal potential. Berry laments that one can only get the best vocally if exercises are partaken. There are three stages of development for Berry. The first is relaxation and breathing. In this stage the actor develops the ability for vocal power by increasing the use of the lips and tongue. The second stage is the application of this to the actors role. They must be aware that their own vocal inhibitions are bound up with their acting voice, and that what they hear is not what the audience hears. Relying on their own voice would lead to a predictable style of acting, instead the actor must use these exercise to free the voi ce and allow the emotion of the role to become one with the voice, preventing the need for predictable pushing out and expression of emotions. Finally the third stage is the belief in both the exercises and an understanding of the second stage to create vocal freedom. The development of the voice through these three stages of exercises will create a new freedom, allowing the voice to respond instinctively to the action, beyond thought and technicality of the actors thoughts, but instead naturally and freely. (Berry, 1978) Lecoq: The Art of Mime Contrary to mimes generic image of speechless and silent expression, Lecoqs writings on mime express the important of the voice and indeed the concepts of freedom in movement and vocal as discussed above. Fundamentally Lecoq rejects the notion of mime being the expression of words without sound. The clichÃ ©d image of the mime, with exaggerated movements and facial expression, Lecoq would suggest fails to convey the practice of mime and its true art form. Mime in its simplest form is the idea of imitation. Here we can understand the art of dramatic mime that Lecoq discusses. This is creation of a theatrical situation with the body, often involving the impersonation of peoples. Such artists create the illusion of the person they mimic, vocally, in body and action. Their art lies in the ability to be this person in alternate scenarios. The actor must feel the movement, gestures and emotions as if they are their own, only the theatrics occurs when the addition of the actors true self i s added, their ownership of the movements produces the essence of mimicry. Symbolic mime requires the actor to partake in absolute mime, creating the environment and opening the audiences imagination. This requires a consistency of action, an understanding of the weight, placement and true abilities of the objects in the illusion. Finally there is the use of plastic mime, the use of the body as a language perhaps used with the constraints of face masks. The body must convey the story whilst the face illuminates the emotion. Lecoq theories a system for conveying mime through exercises designed to able the body. However, Lecoq laments that this system of exercises once used must be discarded of a true and spontaneous performance is to be conveyed. The body moves spontaneously, with reflective action and the system of exercises must not prevent this. All rhythm is organic and no two rhythms are the same and this is key to the creation of the art of mime. (Lecoq, 2006) Jos Houben: The Neutral Mask Once again this piece focuses on the freedom of expression necessary in acting. Through mask work, Shrubsall speaks of Houbens techniques, as inspired by Mosho Feldenkrais and Jacques Lecoq. The ability to separate and un-clutter ones own psychology which lays behind all our human movement, readying the body for meaningful spontaneous movement using techniques such as understanding the relationship between different parts of the body and their related movements. This is conveyed in the important of the mask in acting. The mask will only exist if there is a connection between the actor and the mask. They must become the mask. When the actor looks to the sky, the mask must convey this use of sight, his head expressing the movement and his back and shoulders responding as such. This piece is about the use of organic and functional movement, free from judgement and prior interpretation. (Shrubsall, 2002) Murray: Practical Exercises In this chapter Murray attempts to produce a series of exercises in which to share the experience of Lecoqs theatre and understanding how to prepare ones body for theatre as expressed by Lecoq. Murray defines the fundamental principles behind Lecoqs theories and hence his exercises. It is the idea that essentially movement provokes emotion and the body remembers this. This chapter focuses mainly on the teaching of these actual exercises rather than the theory behind but considers most primarily the bodys relationship between push and pull, balance and imbalance in the creation of Lecoqs work on tragedy, melodrama the neural mask and commedia delarte. (Murray, 2003) Conclusion There is a theme within these readings, that of body and movement in space and time incorporating ideas of freedom without influence. In order to grasp this freedom the readings suggest that the use of exercises is of prime importance for the natural, free vocal and bodied actor. The muscles of the mind and body must be warm and content in order to open up the actors full potential. There is the suggestion that acting without such consideration is meaningless and insincere. That to act is to be free from our human constraints.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Prospectus: The Conflict Between Modern and Traditional Islam Thesis: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Over the last decade the Islamic Religion has been making the change from a traditional society to a more modern society. With the wars over religion and the world as a whole making changes, many Islamic families are discovering that they are attached to their traditional views, but to keep up with the constantly changing world they are wondering if being modern and Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanÃ¢â¬ is the way to a more productive live. Description of project: The central conflict in Islamic life today has been between modern and traditional views of the Islamic religion. The world has been changing so drastically over the last few decades, that it has caused the Islamic religion to become more modern rather than traditional. There is much conflict between traditional and modern views of Islam. I feel that with the high pace of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society Islam has become more modern. Many would like to keep the views and practices in a more traditional manner but with the constant hustle and bustle of society it is somewhat impossible for Muslims of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s time to continue to practice in a strict traditional way. Bibliography: Afkar http://www.islam-online.net/english/index.shtml Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1999-2002 Islam online This particular website does two things it provides Islam history as well as contemporary ideas and how they are linked together. Ahlul Baht Digital Islamic Library Project. July 23, 1997 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://al-islam.org Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This website looks at Islamic beliefs and practices as well as Islamic history and current events. Alavi, Karima Diane. Ã¢â¬Å"Turning to the Islamic Faith.Ã¢â¬ America. 186 (March 2002): Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ebscohost. 20 paragraphs. Missouri Western State College Library. 4 March Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2002. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.mwsc.edu/~libww/. Reflects on the response of American Muslims to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the U.S. View that the hijackers twisted the ideals of Islam. Ali, M. Amir, Ph. D. http://www.iiie.net/islamicbeliefs.html Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2000. This website is mainly used for research on Islamic culture and contemporary issues. It also deals with Muslims in American life. Beverly, James A. Ã¢â¬Å"Is Islam a Religion of Pe... ...nbsp;Ebscohost. 4 paragraphs. Missouri Western State College Library. 23 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã February 2002. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.mwsc.edu/~libww/. Reports on the views of religious broadcaster Pat Robertson on Islam. Smith, Jane I. Islam in America. Columbia University Press. New York. 2000. This book gives a detailed description of what the life of an Islam is like in America in the 20th and 21st century. Wakin, Daniel J. Ã¢â¬Å"Ranks of Latinos Turning to Islam are increasing.Ã¢â¬ New York Times. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã (January 2002): Ebscohost. 17 paragraphs. Missouri Western State College Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Library. 2 January 2002. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.mwsc.edu/~libwww/. Focuses on the Alianza Islamica, an organization of Latino Muslims in New York City. Specific issues faced by Latino Muslims, including treatment by Arab Muslims and fellow Latinos. Wolfe, Micheal. Ã¢â¬Å" Islam: The next American Religion?Ã¢â¬ Beliefnet Columnist. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://aol.beliefnet.com This website article discusses how the United States used to be a haven for Christian outcast, but that Islam may be the Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ religion.
Friday, July 19, 2019
How My Cousin Manuel Brought Home A Wife Manuel Arguilla and Charlson OngÃ¢â¬â¢s stories may have an almost similar title, with each of the main characters bringing home a wife who is different from the local people. However, the newer version addresses a much more serious issue. In Charlson OngÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"How My Cousin Manuel Brought Home A WifeÃ¢â¬ , the writer used contrast of characters(particularly Consuelo and Mei Lu) and contemporary language to show that even in the modern age, racial discrimination still exists and destroys oneÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness. Hearing about his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s return with a Brazilian wife, Mei Lu is devastated. Her agony clearly worsens to the extreme upon seeing her daughter-in-law: Consuelo, a huge and black woman whom she describes as Ã¢â¬Å"bigger than the great wall and blacker than the pit of her kettleÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"She might learn to live with the fact of a foreign daughter-in-law, Spanish-speaking and all. But Consuelo? The woman simply failed to strike me as being in the universe of possibilities Aunt Mei Lu could imagine.Ã¢â¬ It is made clear by the writer in these lines that a foreign daughter-in-law of a skin color other than black would be bearable for Mei Lu. Mother says Carlos should not have brought Consuelo to the house. But did they not send Carlos to the airport to bring the couple back home? Apparently, they were expecting a white Brazilian. At 70 and being Ã¢â¬Å"from an age where the word beauty conjured a fairness often described as being edible and where petite, teen-age, virgin brides were tucked neatly into fragile sedan chairs fit for babesÃ¢â¬ , Mei Lu can not accept the fact of having Consuelo, who has just the opposite qualities, as the wife of her only son. She regards Consuelo as subhuman. This she reveals by her wailing: Ã¢â¬Å"You call that a daughter-in-law?Ã¢â¬ Furthermore, she associates ConsueloÃ¢â¬â¢s black skin color with evil. Eventhough she has not spoken a word to Consuelo, except for the words Ã¢â¬Å"O kuiÃ¢â¬ she called to her face, Mei Lu automatically as sumes that she tried to kill Manuel, who was actually saved through ConsueloÃ¢â¬â¢s psychic abilities, and is only after ManuelÃ¢â¬â¢s money, which is not as much as Mei Lu thinks at all.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Affirmative action was orginally designed to help minorities, but women-especially white women-have made the greatest gains as a result of these programsÃ¢â¬ (Gross, 1996). Affirmative action is a growing argument among our society. It is multifaceted and very often defined vaguely. Many people define affirmative action as the ability to strive for equality and inclusiveness. Others might see it as a quote-based system for different minority groups. I agree and support affirmative actions in that individualÃ¢â¬ s should be treated equally. I feel affirmative action as an assurance that the best qualified person will receive the job. Is affirmative action fair? In 1974, a woman named Rose was truned down for a supervisory job in favor of a male. She was told that she was the most qualified person, but the position was going to be filled by a man, because he had a family to support. Five years before that, when Rose was about to fill an entry-level position in bank! ing, a personnel officer outlined the womanÃ¢â¬ s pay scale, which was $25 to $50 month less than what men were being payed for the same position. Rose was furious because she felt this was descriminating to her. She confronted the personnel officer and he saw nothing wrong with it. Thanks to affirmative action today things like these situations are becoming more rare and/or corrected more quickly. Affirmative action has definately helped women and minorities in their careers, but it has yet to succed in the goal of equality to the fullest for the business world to woment and minorities. Some observers argue that women have made huge strides! with the help of affirmative action. They now hold 40 percent of all corporate middle-management jobs, and the number of women-owned businesses has grown by 57 percent since 1982Ã¢â¬ ³(Blackwood, 1995). Ã¢â¬Å"Affirmative action was desinged to give qualified minorities a chance to compete on equal footing with WhitesÃ¢â¬ (Chappell, 1995). Equal opportunities for the blacks, for the most part, has remained more wishful-thinking than fact. Black students are continuing to struggle to seek an education, black business owners are still competing against their White counterparts, and black workers are experienceing an unemployment rate twice that of Whites and hold dead-end, labor-intensive, low-paying jobs. Ã¢â¬Å"Few can argue that racism is still rampant in awarding craontcts, jobs, and educational opportunities, eventhough itÃ¢â¬ s been proven benefical to have peop[le of different races with different ideas and different experiences working toward the same goalÃ¢â¬ (Chappell, 1995). The employment outlook for minorities is grim, but not hopeless. We definaltely need affirmative action to overcome the disparities of employment that exist int his country. A recent Urban BenchmarksÃ¢â¬ study found that of 71 metro areas surveyed nationwide, Pittsburgh had the highest rate of employment-related problems among non-Hispanic whites between! the ages of 25 and 54 and the sixth highest rate among African Americans in the same age group. We have a lot of problems with basic education here and if you donÃ¢â¬ t have basic education, you have no chance of getting a good job because competition is increasing for everyone. We must make sure that we educate our potential work force, including minorities, or our competitive edge, if we have one, will continue to decline in golbal markets. Many jobs today are in the technician and technologist area. Ã¢â¬Å"Jobs require more than a high-school diploma,but less than a four-year degreeÃ¢â¬âsuch as an associate degree or certificate fro! m a vocational or trade schoolÃ¢â¬ (Kovatch, 1996). As more and more women faced discrimination in large firms, more decided to strike out on their own. In conclusion, most Americans know that the deck is stacked against poor kids. They also realize that, because of past discrimination, an extraordinary number of those facing unequal opportunities are black. So, while 75 percent of Americans oppose racial preferences, according to a 1995 Washington Post/ABC poll, two-thirds with to Ã¢â¬Å"changeÃ¢â¬ affirmative actionprograms rather than Ã¢â¬Å"do away with them entirelyÃ¢â¬ . But the public also realized that, in real life, the legacy of discrimination is not always so neat. It is diffuse, and it requires a broader remedy. Affirmative Action: The White Women-have Made The Greatest Gains Ã¢â¬Å"Affirmative action was orginally designed to help minorities, but women-especially white women-have made the greatest gains as a result of these programsÃ¢â¬ (Gross, 1996). Affirmative action is a growing argument among our society. It is multifaceted and very often defined vaguely. Many people define affirmative action as the ability to strive for equality and inclusiveness. Others might see it as a quote-based system for different minority groups. I agree and support affirmative actions in that individualÃ¢â¬ s should be treated equally. I feel affirmative action as an assurance that the best qualified person will receive the job. Is affirmative action fair? In 1974, a woman named Rose was truned down for a supervisory job in favor of a male. She was told that she was the most qualified person, but the position was going to be filled by a man, because he had a family to support. Five years before that, when Rose was about to fill an entry-level position in bank! ing, a personnel officer outlined the womanÃ¢â¬ s pay scale, which was $25 to $50 month less than what men were being payed for the same position. Rose was furious because she felt this was descriminating to her. She confronted the personnel officer and he saw nothing wrong with it. Thanks to affirmative action today things like these situations are becoming more rare and/or corrected more quickly. Affirmative action has definately helped women and minorities in their careers, but it has yet to succed in the goal of equality to the fullest for the business world to woment and minorities. Some observers argue that women have made huge strides! with the help of affirmative action. They now hold 40 percent of all corporate middle-management jobs, and the number of women-owned businesses has grown by 57 percent since 1982Ã¢â¬ ³(Blackwood, 1995). Ã¢â¬Å"Affirmative action was desinged to give qualified minorities a chance to compete on equal footing with WhitesÃ¢â¬ (Chappell, 1995). Equal opportunities for the blacks, for the most part, has remained more wishful-thinking than fact. Black students are continuing to struggle to seek an education, black business owners are still competing against their White counterparts, and black workers are experienceing an unemployment rate twice that of Whites and hold dead-end, labor-intensive, low-paying jobs. Ã¢â¬Å"Few can argue that racism is still rampant in awarding craontcts, jobs, and educational opportunities, eventhough itÃ¢â¬ s been proven benefical to have peop[le of different races with different ideas and different experiences working toward the same goalÃ¢â¬ (Chappell, 1995). The employment outlook for minorities is grim, but not hopeless. We definaltely need affirmative action to overcome the disparities of employment that exist int his country. A recent Urban BenchmarksÃ¢â¬ study found that of 71 metro areas surveyed nationwide, Pittsburgh had the highest rate of employment-related problems among non-Hispanic whites between! the ages of 25 and 54 and the sixth highest rate among African Americans in the same age group. We have a lot of problems with basic education here and if you donÃ¢â¬ t have basic education, you have no chance of getting a good job because competition is increasing for everyone. We must make sure that we educate our potential work force, including minorities, or our competitive edge, if we have one, will continue to decline in golbal markets. Many jobs today are in the technician and technologist area. Ã¢â¬Å"Jobs require more than a high-school diploma,but less than a four-year degreeÃ¢â¬âsuch as an associate degree or certificate fro! m a vocational or trade schoolÃ¢â¬ (Kovatch, 1996). As more and more women faced discrimination in large firms, more decided to strike out on their own. In conclusion, most Americans know that the deck is stacked against poor kids. They also realize that, because of past discrimination, an extraordinary number of those facing unequal opportunities are black. So, while 75 percent of Americans oppose racial preferences, according to a 1995 Washington Post/ABC poll, two-thirds with to Ã¢â¬Å"changeÃ¢â¬ affirmative actionprograms rather than Ã¢â¬Å"do away with them entirelyÃ¢â¬ . But the public also realized that, in real life, the legacy of discrimination is not always so neat. It is diffuse, and it requires a broader remedy.
In near both the business roles today, entry cleverness has become a core readiness and an inevitable prerequisite for any clean job. One of the popular fears among the pile, after dogs, snakes heights, water, is humanity speech production. This category of people usually incur abnormal heartbeats, c aging sweats, shivering and the worst, let out or high blood pres confident(predicate)s. obdurate to this, founding skill can be developed and achieved finished radiation pattern and observation. Its exactly bid disciplineing to tantalise the bike. Here be approximately quick, tried and tested tips, if fol depleteded c ar to the full they go a way of life compress hold of you a potent bestower as well as an influential unexclusive vocaliser.Why do we keep the displays?Basically, in that respect ar four decisions of giving a demonstration. Firstly, to inform your sense of hearing about what you jazz. In some other(a) spoken communication, it is cal led informative presentment. Secondly, to train, all the intensity of t to each(prenominal) whizing and training activities for students and staff all depend on the presentation skill of the teacher or trainer. The third purpose of giving a presentation is to twine the public, our politicians ar a very levelheaded interrogatoryple of that. During the election campaign, the politicians dedicate weighty presentations to convince the public to give them the vote. Lastly, gross sales people give presentations about their products to the customer and clients for the marketing.Pre-presentation TipsObjectiveBefore preparing any presentation one must be unclouded about the purpose of giving the presentation. Be acquire, if you k like a shot abstemiously what you conf make use of to deliver it go forth armed service you find how to do it. subjectOnce the objective is clearly defined, now you should focus the contents of your presentation. It performer what is the circum stance of your talk. What is included and excluded. The contents must be tally to the objective and the need of the audition. by dint of brainstorming, slip bying in view your knowledge, reference and the topic, the parameters can be defined to foil the topic extensively.AudienceJim Rohn, the American motivational speaker unit and writer, says, Consider your audience. It nitty-gritty who they be, what they already know about the topic, how old they argon and what actors line and style they cull and so on Once you are fully aware of all the facts it depart help you tailor your presentation fit to the take of your audience.Time and lengthPeople have their peak and low m accord to the time of the day. Some people consort to be much than active and nippy in the break of day. Therefore, if you present in the morning you ability bear positive feed digest from your audience. On the other hand after eat and in the evening people are likely to be drowsy and may n on focus on what the conferrer says. There, audience should be energized by means of activities and questions to keep them awake. Whereas, length means the time you are allotted to present. If it exceeds the timeline, you will hurt the raise of the audience and the required purposes may not be achieved.StructureOne of the main(prenominal) components of success of any presentation is its structure. more or less the structure of the presentation, Jim Rohn says Tell your audience what you are going to say, so say it all and at the end tell them over again what you have just told them. In other discourses, it means introduction, body of the presentation and summary. beat back care of yourselfThe supporters health, mood, feelings and emotions con sequence a lot because if you are scurvy from cough, sore throat or otherwise sad and sleepy you can not give a well starting line impression. So its a good idea to take care of your health to avoid any physical or mental distract ion.Practice makes perfect taunt presentations given to a group of friends, family members, colleagues or in depend of a mirror, will help you grasp the subject and learn the content. As it is said, practice makes perfect. Rehearsal of your presentation will as well increase your confidence. literal Communication TipsVolumeThe first and the first phenomena in verbal communication is the junction of the presenter. If the presenter has a loud perceptible articulation the pass along will get across clearly and completely to the audience. Usually, low pitched theatrical roles result in the reverse of the presentation and the audience loses the interest in that presenter. Try to speak loud and clear exclusively, not so loud that you cause your audience a headache delinquent to your th belowing joint.PacePace means the speed of your lecture, speech or presentation. As a matter of fact, the listeners have their sense of hearing and comprehending speed and the speakers have th eir speaking pace. Both the speeds must align with each other. Therefore, speak in a build of paces if something is really important or life-threatening, purblind down to make your audience understand it. If you are repeating a post or giving a summary of your presentation past you might go with a faster pace. Use a diversity of paces except make sure what you are delivering your audience is receiving it in the aforementioned(prenominal) way.PausesPause is a short item in which something such as a sound or an activity is stop before starting again. Pauses are like the punctuation marks in the write language. We use pauses or break the sequence of talk so that we might crock up the most important to the least important. Besides, pauses become an encounter of your words on the legal opinions of the listeners. If you are describing a difficult point or delivering an informative presentation which is complex too, then you must stop briefly at certain points. Pauses give ti me to the audience to think, realize and absorb the information you are showering upon them.IntonationIntonation is the change of voice as per the nature of the message you inadequacy to deliver. Communication experts believe words are lifeless unless we add our vocal variety in it. It is your voice that mixes up your words with feelings and emotions. This mixed voice is called intonation. The pitch and tactile sensation of your voice help you make the remediate intonation according to the message you deliver. For example, if you somersault any test or exam you say loudly Yaaahhhoooo Now this interpellation is expressed through your emotional voice which is intonation. Someone rightly said the voice that comes from heart has a deep impact on the listeners this voice of the heart is in fact your intonation. As a powerful communicator express your feelings and emotions through your voice and give the heart touching presentations.Avoid stylized FillersArtificial filler is either the repeat of a word or a sentence for example, ok, you know, fine etc.or uttering some meaningless words like errrrr, aaaah, ehhh etc. Artificial fillers are a must-avoid during the presentation because they make your presentation funny or boring for the audience. A presenter must not repeat a word or a sentence time and again habitually.Humour During PresentaionWell, it depends on the audience and the presentation environment because some presentations are delivered in a strict and serious environment where it is not appropriate at all to use humour or make the audience laugh. On the other hand, if its a friendly environment or training then a presenter must entertain the audience through some relevant jokes or funny stories. As it is said joke is the best medicine and if a presenter makes the audience smile and laugh they will remain active, energetic and will not feel bored. Do not knock anyone or make fun of anyone of your audience. This might worsen the situation as most o f the people never like to be laughed at.Nonverbal Communication StrategiesBody layNonverbal communication is the communication through body language which is in consummation more powerful than the verbal sheath of communication. As a presenter, you are under the spot light. Every one emotional stateing fors at you during the session thats why a presenter should stand at a roll where he is visible to each and each individual sitting in front of him. During the presentation you must not stand still at one place and deliver the whole presentation there, rather you should change the gravel according to the situation but at every position your audience must be able to see you clearly. Never enlistment your back towards your audience.PosturePosture means position of body or the way in which somebody usually holds his shoulders, make do and back, or a particular position in which someone stands or sits etc. As you present you must assessment your posture, it should be active an d energetic. Lazy and tranquil postures result in the concentration passing game of the audience. Not only this, but the speaker becomes less reliable and unauthentic. Stand directly and confidently, put your shoulders at a relaxed but active positive. Positive postures give a very strong nonverbal message to your audience.MovementThe basic difference amid speech and presentation is that during the speech the speaker stays at one place and talks but in the presentation the presenter is animated. The presenter moves nearly in the room purposefully, walks and talks with the audience. Therefore, a presenter must move but the motion has to be purposeful not a continuous movements or the nervous movements. duration moving do not lose the spunk contact with the audience. Move around but keep computeing at the audience.HandsDuring the presentation, your hand notify in effect as well. In fact, your turn over give meanings to your words and create an impact on the audience. There is a complete language known as Sign quarrel which is mostly based on hands signals. Do not cross your hands or rest them at the back just leave your arms lite by your sides and as you talk according to the words, sentence or message use your hands and fingers to make your message more meaningful and impressive.Facial ExpressionsIt is said, Face is the proponent of mind. Whatever we think it comes on the face through these nervus facialis expressions we communicate the deepest thoughts of our mind and feelings of our hearts. If you look at someone and smile, the other person will also smile in response and if you look at a child angrily, the child will be afraid of you. Our facial muscles make our face expressions and the facial muscles get activated when either we arouse our feelings and emotions in a certain way. Express yourself through your facial muscles and connect with your audience profoundly and give a memorable presentation. snapper ContactYour eyes are your lightho use. As you talk do not look at the walls, fans or tube lights but the people sitting in front of you. When you look in to the eyes of the people it shows that you are giving them your attention and in response your audience also looks at you. Moreover, eye contact works like an infrared channel that transfers data from your mind to the minds of the listeners. But do not look at one person for more than 5 seconds because it might make him/her uncomfortable and it will also turn your eye contact to staring.Finally, be confident and practice all the points carefully. Fake it, until you make it and then it will become your natural presentation style.