Thursday, December 26, 2019

The Archaic and Classical Greek Periods Essay - 1279 Words

Greek society is different from our won. The concepts that assist us to describe contemporary religious situations are quite unsuitable to use toward the analysis of what the Greeks regarded as divine. With this in mind, we can then be able to look at the outline of the practice of hero cult in both the Archaic and Classical Greek periods. Each of these periods has their own distinctive cultural identity. This essay will look at political life as the most prominent significance for these communities to perform heroic cults. Heroes and Hero Cult â€Å"The word hero appears in Greek language with a twofold meaning. On one hand it is used for denoting a divine being, who lived a mortal life, but after doing some great deed deserved to become god.†¦show more content†¦While worship of the Olympian gods was generally Pan-Hellenic, took place during the day, and was directed towards the sky, hero worship was generally a local tradition associated with the night and the local earth. Physically, cult activities would center on the presumed tomb of the hero. The immediate area around the tomb could be separated from other burials or localities by a wall or monument. Hero cults present plenty of opportunities for collective memory and disregard through at least three categories of reference: the location of hero’s tomb, the identity of the hero himself and the identity created for the individual worshiper in relationship to the hero, and the moment of hero’s death in the mythic past and the seasonally recurring rituals performed in the here and now of the sacrificed. These memories are often distinctly political in nature. The Archaic Period The Greek Archaic Period, (c. 800- 479 BCE) is preceded by the Greek Dark Age, (c.1200- 800 BCE), followed by the Classical Period (c. 510- 323 BCE), (Lloyd, 2012). One of the most important aspects to note with regards to the Archaic Period is the politics and law. These were some of the vast changes experienced during this period and mainly occurred due to the increase of the Greek population, (the sharp rise in population at the start of the Archaic period brought with it theShow MoreRelatedThe Period Of Greek Art866 Words   |  4 Pagesthe times in Greek art, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic periods have changed overtime from the sculptures in the form, style, and symmetry. The Archaic period lasted from 700 to 500 BCE and the sculptures haven’t yet mastered in sculpting showing realism. Their style of sculpting was similar to the Egyptians in the way that they made the bodies of the sculptures rigid with both arms on their sides and with a foot stepped forward (Greek Archaic Art). By the end of the Archaic period in ca 500 BCERead MoreArt History Paper: Transformation Between Sculpture and Early Classical Period1113 Words   |  5 Pagessculpture of the late archaic period and that of the early Classical period. Note how these imply a change in relationship of the viewer to the work of art. Throughout history, sculptures have developed significantly. The Western tradition of sculptures began in Ancient Greece along with Egypt and many other ancient civilizations around the world. Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the archaic period and as time evolved into the classical period more detailed and sensibleRead MoreAncient Greek Art - Essay1066 Words   |  5 PagesAncient Greek Art Ancient Greece was a remarkable place of learning and civilization. Many of the institutions developed at the time are still in use today, such as universities and democratic governments. Ancient Greece is also known for its incredible artworks, which have influenced many cultures through centuries. As with all things, the Ancient Greeks were innovators in the field of art and developed many new styles and techniques which have been used by countless artists ever since. AncientRead MorePeriods of Greek Art682 Words   |  3 Pages Greek art has changed throughout the years, yet some basic forms have remained. Time, technique, as well as historical events have helped shape the way art has evolved since 600 B.C. Three important periods in Greek art are the Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods. We will discuss how art has changed throughout these periods, what influences led to change, as well as why it changed. We will also discuss what has remained constant through these periods. Since people’s perceptions and tasteRead MoreEssay on Advertisement: Greek Statue and Perfume1462 Words   |  6 PagesAdvertisement: Greek Statue and Perfume While flipping through the pages of a fashion magazine, my fingers stop abruptly as my eyes catch an image of a nude man holding a clothed woman. The man has a muscular body and is effortlessly supporting the woman whos body is arched backwards, her arms hang in a swan-like manner. On the ground by her left foot lays a paint palette and her right hand is grasping a paint brush. The room that they are in appears to be a studio with press board floors,Read MoreGreek Mythology : The Epic Tale The Iliad1179 Words   |  5 PagesGreek mythology played a large role in Greek artistic styles and functions. In the case of this study, the mythological god Apollo is the subject of the artistic works of the votive known as the â€Å"Mantiklos Apollo† and the statue of â€Å"Apollo† that was found in Pireaus. These figures show a natural progression in style and technique. They are important because they represent the sacred beliefs and superstitions of their respective cultures and time periods. The two stylistic periods represented inRead MoreMarble Head of a Ptolemaic Queen1348 Words   |  6 PagesQueen Daniel R. Diaz Professor Shelby Art History 101 December 11, 2004 This work of art is from the Greek, Hellenistic period, c. 270- 250 B.C.E. This fifteen inch marble bust corresponds to a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty according to the typical facial features of the ruling family at that time. The Ptolemaic dynasty occurred when there was a succession of Macedonian Greeks over Egypt from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. until the annexation of Egypt by Rome and the suicideRead MoreFinal Business Plan1230 Words   |  5 Pages| Art History MidtermStudy online at | 1. | A Classical colonnade around a building or courtyard is called a | | peristyle | 2. | A half-column attached to a wall is called a/an | | Engaged column | 3. | A plain or decorated slab on a Doric frieze which alternates with the triglyphs is called the | | Metopes | 4. | A series or row of columns usually spanned by lintels is called a/an: | | Colonnade Read More The History of Greek Architecture Essays1042 Words   |  5 PagesThe History of Greek Architecture The architecture of ancient Greece is represented by buildings in the sanctuaries and cities of mainland Greece, the Aegean islands, southern Italy and Sicily, and the Ionian coast of Turkey. Monumental Greek architecture began in the archaic period, flourished through the classical and Hellenistic periods, and saw the first of many revivals during the Roman Empire. The roots of Greek architecture lie in the tradition of local Bronze Age house andRead MoreClassical Greek Sculpture Analysis Essays1215 Words   |  5 PagesClassical Greek Sculpture Analysis Riace Bronzes (Statue A) This classical Greek sculpture is titled the Riace Bronzes. The Riace statues are two life-size bronze statues each weighing nearly a ton. Statue A which is depicted above is of a young warrior, while statue B which is not depicted is of an older warrior wearing a helmet. In this analysis I will be concentrating on Statue A. The sculptor of this statue remains unknown; however most experts

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Fighting the Juarez Cartel - 648 Words

Fighting the Juarez Cartel Introduction: The War On Drugs has been an incredibly long, ineffective and costly initiative aimed at stemming the flow of illegal drugs into the United States with a specific focus on the well-worn trafficking paths snaking inward from south of the Mexican border. The failure of the War is perhaps best reflected in the incredible carnage and violence which continue to grip key border regions like Juarez. This territory, controlled by the notorious Juarez cartel, is the site of ongoing turf wars with rival drug peddlers, the Sinaloa Cartel, as well as with law enforcement and paramilitary groups of varying degrees of corruption. Lawmakers partnered in the United States and Mexico have been absolutely flummoxed over how to address the current state of affairs, which is in a decided state of intensification. Evidence suggests, however, that contrary to the strategy of heightened militancy taken on by both federal governments, the real path to better enforcement against the cartel is to disrupt the steady influx of guns and military-grade weaponry. Law Enforcement Strategies: Indeed, though the War on Drugs has persisted for decades to create a state of worsening chaos in Mexicos border regions, 2008 would mark a turning point. The declared militancy of then President Felix Calderon would lead to something of an arms race between police officials and cartels. Within this race, violence, intimidation and murder would also become key tactics forShow MoreRelatedMexican Cartels1044 Words   |  5 Pages Attention getter/ Bullets begin flying, armored soldiers and drug cartel members fight it out on the steets killing each other and the surrounding civilians that are innocently just watching as they are caught in the cross fire. Now you may wonder where is this happening..Irag? Afganistan? No Its actually just south of us its happening in Mexico. C. I know this because as crazy as it sounds one of my cousins is in a drug cartel and I’ve seen the bullet holes, the blown up buildings, the blown upRead MoreMexican-American Drug War1105 Words   |  5 PagesMexican drug-trafficking cartels are said to have been established in the 1980s by a man named Miguel Angel Felix Gallardo, also known as â€Å"The Godfather†. With the help of Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo and Rafael Caro Quintero, Miguel started the Guadalajara Cartel, which is one of the first to have thrived from association with the Colombian cocaine trade. The two men who helped Miguel Gallardo establish the cartel were arrested, so Gallardo, the single leader of the cartel â€Å"was smart enough to privatizeRead MoreMexican Drug Cartel Analysis Essay1433 Words   |  6 Pagesorganizations. However, a close examination of Sinaloas evolution demonstrates the group is hardly the hallmark of civility. In fact, the history of Mexicos cartel wars over the past decade reveals that Guzman, his Sinaloa Federation and the various cartels with which they partner have been more territorially aggressive than any other Mexican cartel. Expansion and Escalation Sinaloa incursions upset the balance of power that Miguel Angel â€Å"El Padrino† Felix Gallardo established in the late 1980s whenRead MoreMurder Capital Of The World1794 Words   |  8 Pages2010 compared to only 300 murders in 2006. The statistics dubbed Ciudad Juarez as the murder capital of the world during these years. The ongoing war between the once dominant Juarez Cartel and the current reigning rival Sinaloa Cartel spurred the homicide rate in this crucial drug trafficking route. Recent speculations are that the Sinaloa Cartel led by Joaquin â€Å"El Chapo† Guzman Loera has surpassed the waning Juarez Cartel and taken control of Cd. Juarez’s territory (Shoichet). Just like both groupsRead MoreMovements Rising from Drug Cartels in Mexico1277 Words   |  5 Pagesbeen existed for many decades, but now it is expanding further due to the born of new drug trafficking organizations or cartels. The cartels fight against each other to win control or to open new trafficking routes into the United States, on their fights many innocent people die or disappear every day. Residents from some states tired of all the crimes committed by the cartels and sometimes the authorities; had decided to protect themselves by forming self- defense groups Also, other movement hasRead MoreThe Economics Behind Drug Trafficking and Cartels in Mexico: A Study of the Cartel’s Influence on Mexico and the Expansion to West Africa 3042 Words   |  13 Pagesin areas where drug cartels are present. The war against drug trafficking is an ever-present problem, and is seemingly always growing more violent as the cartel’s and gangs power. Drugs are obviously not a constructive product, and countries such as Mexico are suffering in terms of image, prosperity, safety and politics due to their abundance of drug related problems. Drugs have caused a staggering and horrific amount of deaths through violence between the rival drug cartels, as well as governmentalRead MoreOverivew of Mexicos Drug War1824 Words   |  8 Pagesrise of dozens of Mexican cartels, the Mexican government has constantly been fighting an ongoing war with these criminal organizations. The cartel organizations have a primary purpose of managing and controlling illegal drug trafficking operations in Central America and South America to the United States. Violence on a massive and brutal scale has emerged due to the nature of the illegal drug trade. Because the drug trade is vastly widespread, cartels are o ften fighting one another and competingRead MoreU.s. Department Of The Criminal Justice Field1691 Words   |  7 PagesEventually, I decided to do a map that will focus at a state level on the territories within Mexico that transnational criminal organizations have a dominant influence. According to the U.S. Department of Justice National Drug Intelligence Center, drug cartels can be define as â€Å"†¦large, highly sophisticated organizations composed of multiple [Drug Trafficking Organizations] DTOs and cells with specific assignments such as drug transportation, security/enforcement, or money laundering† (2010). Also, it isRead MoreThe Fight Against Drug Trafficking Essay1977 Words   |  8 Pagespast and present have taken to the military to try and eradicate the problem, but have been met with force. As a result of the cartel violence, the rising death toll has hit a staggering number. While the number itself is substantial, the manner used by these organizations to commit these acts of violence range from kidnappings, to decapitations and mass killings. Drug cartels have not stopped short of any means necessary to meet their goals and have even joined forces with once rival gangs to do soRead MoreThe High Cost of Drugs972 Words   |  4 Pages H eres a look at what I believe more people need to know about the Mexican Drug War and Cartel. The Mexican drug cartels have been like a disease spreading like a wild fire all over Mexico over the years. The Mexican government has been fighting a war with drug traffickers for a long time. Also, drug cartels have been fighting with each other for control of territories in Mexico. Over 60,000 people have been killed from 2006 to 2012, according to Human Rights Watch. Many people have been robbed

Monday, December 9, 2019

Critical Criminology Companion Theory

Question: Discuss about the Critical Criminology Companion Theory. Answer: Introduction A crime is an act that violates law or legal ethics. Criminology deals with the study of crime. There are various theories on criminology that have developed over past 250 years while some of them have become irrelevant[1]. The concept of criminology began in the 18th century when classical school of criminology was invented by an Italian scholar Cesare Beccaria and then in the 19th century the positivists approach of criminology was defined by Cesare Lombroso. In the 20th century, two more criminology theories were invented and these were social structural criminology and social process criminology. There are several factors which is the reason of criminal offences. The factors can be psychological, social, geographical, political and economical. The scientific study about criminals and crime is known as criminology. The rate of crime has increased over the years. It has negative effect on the person who is the victim of crime and on the locality which is affected with crime[2]. The classical versus positivists schools of thought During the mid-18th century an intensifying debate started among the scholars regarding a more rational way to criminal punishment in order to abolish the cruel and harsh public executions which were used to make the people scared and be obedient. The concept of Utilitarianism was invented by an Italian scholar Cesare Beccaria and he said that the behaviour of a people is highly motivated with the avoidance of pain and pursuit of pleasure. In case of Classical School of Criminology formulating decisions are described with deterring crime[3]. It is believed by classical school that human commit the act which is the criminal act but they have their freedom to choose right or wrong which cannot be prohibited. According to him, crimes only results when rewards and pleasures on attempting a crime will be greater than that of punishment as in this case the person who is attempting the crime becomes so engrossed with the thought of that reward, the pain of punishment gets faded away from his mind[4]. Different elements of classical theory are- People have that willing capacity to choose their own preferences as lawful solutions to settle their crimes and problems. Crime becomes really appealing hen it gives great benefits just with a little effort. It is possible to control crime with the fear of punishment. Punishments which are perceived to be obvious, swift and severe will depress criminal behaviour. Certain and severe behaviour is noticed in the punishment given for the crime. In the 19th century, a new concept was discovered by Cesare Lombroso, known as the father of the criminology. This concept is called positivist theory and the views of this concept created a questionable existence of the classical theory[5]. Positivist School of Criminology believes in rational independence where criminal behaviour is presumed and qualified measurement is done on the number of crime[6]. Lombroso mentioned in his book of The Criminal Man that those who are criminals they are born with some physical traits which differ from the normal persons for instances, the criminals are born with physical features like high cheekbones, flattened noses, hard eyes, baldness, scanty beards, fleshy lips and have no sensitivity to pain[7]. These physical characteristics are also possible if a person inherits the nature of criminology from his or her parents or ancestors. Lombroso modified his positivist theory and thus other two types of theories were identified and these are the criminal old and the insane criminal. He further concluded that criminality tends to attempt less serious crimes and the insane criminal are not inborn criminals and they are turned criminal later due to alteration of their brain which automatically depresses their morals, ethics and virtues. Changes in understanding victimisation over time Victimisation refers to the state of being victimised. In the 18th century Cesare Beccaria said that the punishment has to be really severe so that the criminals dont even think of attempting a crime and this will also make them realise that the pain of punishment will outweigh the reward from the crime. Then in the 19th century, this theory was argued and the positivists told that the punishment must fit the criminal and not the crime and Cesare Lombroso told that criminals are born with some physical traits which make them appear different from those who are normal people. Again in the 20th century, social structural criminology was discovered which described that society is an organism and treated crime as a state of social pathology. Apart from the above theories, there are four theories of victimisation and these are described below- The victim precipitation theory- This theory states that those who have been victims of crime can get indulge either actively or passively in criminal offences that can lead them to injury or even death. The passive precipitation means when the victim unconsciously expresses behaviours that instigate a sense of attack. For example- the minority groups and the sexual oriented people often faces violence due to their nature of threatening people holding a special position[8]. Active precipitation on the other hand means that victimisation occurs due to provocative nature of the victim himself or herself such as a woman who gets raped active contribute to be victimised due to her provoking dress, relationship or being too intimated to a stranger. Precipitation theory is based on the structure which is based on the structure of oriented nature of crime. The lifestyle theory- This theory states that individuals are victimised due to their own lifestyle choices which invites a criminal offence to take place with the persons who have made such lifestyle choices like going alone at night, dwelling in bad areas of town or making friendship with bad companies. This theory also states that victimisation is not a random process but the choice of a lifestyle can put a person in danger of getting victimised. The lifestyle behaviours of the persons are the contributing reasons of victimisation since those individuals put themselves in the elevated risk of such danger[9]. With the help of several premises lifestyle theory is constructed. Criminal victimization is followed by uneven time and space. Deviant place theory-this theory states that more an individual will be exposing to dangerous places, the more higher will be his chance to fall victim of a crime. Deviant place theory is also known as Victim precipitation theory which suggests innate ideas about confrontation with the criminal when crime is performed by anyone. For example, if a person in a nutshell is facing a neighbourhood which is deviant, then its only way to escape from being victimise is to leave that place. Official versus unofficial data In order to facilitate democratic accountability, it is important to get the statistics of crime so that the police of the country can be informed and this will allow the public to detect the risk of crime in their locality. As per the recent statistics, an approximately 6.2 million crimes were reported in England and Wales from the Crime Survey for England and Wales. The survey further reported that 2.0 million cybercrime and 3.6 million frauds took place in the in the full year of 2016. This survey had covered more than 11.8 million incidents of crime. The trend of crime in the UK has risen to 3% as per the cases of frauds had been submitted to the police[10]. Furthermore, bulk of financial fraud has been unreported to the police and a study shows that this fraud cases on the UK issued-cards has attained an increase of 39% than the previous year. Officially 35% of crime is reported every year. Officially there is 40% of crime. Although most of the fundamental criminal issues get reported with official crime statistics till the 19th century and it also included the dark figures of crime also but in the mid 20th century, apart from this official data, unofficial crime statistics were initiated to explore and investigate the dark figures of crime. Dark figures of crime are the violence that doesnt get reported via official data to the police but these are reported in unofficial crime statistics so that preventive measures are generated and crimes can be controlled[11]. This unofficial data source is categorised into two sections and these are social-science and private-agency records and both of these are done by surveys. The social science sources include self-reports of criminal involvement and surveys of victimisation. The self-report was used initially to ventilate the offences of hidden crime in the 1940s and it is still used today in the UK. Surveys of victimisation is the most recent and probably the m ost influential and evident forecasts of hidden crimes. The survey of victimisation aims to illuminate the dark figures of crime from the perspective of the victim rather than to only exposing the crime. As per a recent statistics, an estimated 6.9 million criminal offence against households were reported, sexual offences in the UK have also sparked up to 32%. The result of these surveys helped the UK police to have an idea of the dark figures of unrecorded crime[12]. Both the police statistics and the crime surveys provide flawless information but the main difference is that the crime surveys cannot count crimes without individual victims whereas police statistics count crimes on the basis of the memory of its respondents and representatives of the sample[13]. The three Rs in criminology are rehabilitation, re-entry and recidivism. Recidivism is referred as a tendency to evolve a previous mode of action or behaviour, specifically it means relapse into a criminal behaviour. Rehabilitation means teaching a criminal to live a productive and normal life. Re-entry refers to the process of teaching criminals to live a free life i.e. transition to free living is induced in them and it includes the time when they were in prison, the process of their release and the way they are supervised after imprisonment. Different definitions of crime In criminology, the definitions of crime are dependent on the approach of how a crime has been attempted. For examples- Homicide refers to the killing of a person by another. Homicides are of two types: Criminal homicides and State-sanctioned homicide[14]. When sanction of punishment in the state is conducted by someone, then they are non criminal homicide. The criminal prosecution gives capital punishment, death punishment based on major parameter of the crime. Purposeful murder, accidental death is criminal homicide. In case of certain category manslaughter is also the cause of crime which is homicidal case. Murder refers to the intentional killing of a human being. Murder is also a crime which is the reason of personal jealously, revenge or self protection. First degree murder is referred to the intentional killing while second degree murder refers to the unintentional killing[15]. Felony murder refers to the death that occurs during serious felony like kidnapping or robbery. Manslaughter means that due to reckless conduct of the killer, a person gets killed unintentionally. Negligent homicide means killing someone due to negligence. Battery means making offensive act of physical contact with someone. Vehicular assault means reckless driving that causes injury to the others. Vehicular assault may be accidental or sometime intentional. In case of this type of assault several accidents can occur. Spousal assault means violence between domestic partners[16]. Spousal assault is performed in the case of domestic abuse or harm. It is forcefully done by the spouse. Rape is the act of forcibly compelled sexual intercourse with an adult who is below 18 or above 18 or with someone which as per law is considered as incapable of consent like in case of disabled women. Sodomy is the act of forced oral sex or consensual participation of same acts between a juvenile and an adult. Conclusion This assignment comprises a brief idea of criminology. It has discussed the concept of criminology both from the perspective of the classical schools of though and positivist idea. It has also explained how the concept of criminology and victimisation has changed over time with various theories of victimisation and criminology[17]. It has explained the importance of official and unofficial data in recording criminal offences and has also mentioned their basic difference. Lastly it has also mentioned various definitions of crimes in various contexts followed. Bibliography Anthony, Thalia, The Critical Criminology Companion (Hawkins Press, 1st ed, 2008) Bernard, T.J., (2013).Vold's theoretical criminology(p. 179189). New York: Oxford University Press. Burke, Roger Hopkins,An Introduction To Criminological Theory(Willan, 1st ed, 2014) Conklin, John Evan, Criminology (Pearson, 1st ed, 2013) Criminological Theory Essentials + The Concise Dictionary Of Crime And Justice, 2Nd Ed (Sage Pubns, 1st ed, 2015) Ellis, Lee, Richard D Hartley and Anthony Walsh, Research Methods In Criminal Justice And Criminology (Rowman Littlefield Publishers, 1st ed, 2010) Geo?rgulas, Stratos, The Politics Of Criminology (Lit, 1st ed, 2012) Heidt, J. and Wheeldon, J.P., (2015).Introducing criminological thinking: Maps, theories, and understanding. Sage Publications. Herrmann, Christopher R, Risky Business (1st ed, 2012) Lutgens, Frederick K, Deviant Behavior + Mysearchlab (Prentice Hall, 1st ed, 2008) Morgan, Rodney, Robert Reiner and Mike Maguire, The Oxford Handbook Of Criminology (Oxford University Press, 1st ed, 2012) Rekers, George Alan, The Journal Of Human Sexuality (Stanley and Lewis, 2nd ed, 2005) Tierney, John,Criminology(Taylor and Francis, 1st ed, 2013) Wegener, Hermann, Friedrich Lo?sel and Jochen Haisch, Criminal Behavior And The Justice System (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2nd ed, 2003) Wilkins, Leslie T, Social Deviance (Routledge, 1st ed, 2014) Williams, Franklin P and Marilyn D McShane, Criminological Theory (Pearson/Prentice Hall, 1st ed, 2010)

Monday, December 2, 2019

Witch Hunts And The Church With Bibliogaphy Essays - Witchcraft

Witch Hunts And The Church With Bibliogaphy I am a witch, now please kill me! Many innocent women happily welcomed death by confessing to witchcraft in order to end their excruciating torture during the witch hunt craze between 1450 and 1750. Since many records were lost, destroyed or never kept, the best estimation of the total deaths is several million (4). The main cause of the witch hunts was the Church inflicting fear upon the common and educated man by lying to them about what witches do and who they are. The Church also directly and indirectly increased the pain that accused women would go through during their torture. The Church made it clear, to all those who would listen, that all women were evil and capable of witchcraft. The Bibles Apocrypha states, Of woman came the beginning of sin / And thanks to her, we all must die.(Apocrypha, Ecclesiasticus 25:13-26.) (2). Vicious comments like this caused even women themselves to fear what other women may do. This fear only lead to the distrust of woman. A book written by two German men, titled Malleus Maleficarum, The Hammer of Witches, only furthered peoples fear of womens evil. It states that women are more likely to become witches: Because the female sex is more concerned with things of the flesh then men; because being formed from a mans rib, they are only imperfect animals and crooked where as man belongs to a privileged sex from whose midst Christ emerged.(Malleus Maleficarum, 1486)(2). The men that wrote Malleus Maleficarum refer to the bible for reasons to why they consider women evil, so if the Church had never incorporated such things into the bible such things may have never been thought. Many ancient myths portrayed goddesss as evil. Consequently those images of evil were kept and later attached to witches who kept goddess worship alive centuries later (4). Even devotion to the Virgin Mary (who is the biological mother of Jesus) was considered an indication of evil (2). One women, named Aldonca de Vargas, was even reported just for smiling at the mention of the Virgin Mary (Henry Kamen, Inquisition and Society in Spain) (2). Once a women was accused of witchcraft she would first have to confess in order to be executed. The torturing of accused women was so unbelievably horrid and sadistic that you would think a man of low standing would be the one to carry it out, but sadly it was the men of educated positions such as bishops, judges, professors and others. By doing the torture themselves it set them in a position of fear throughout the community and it is even said that after the execution of a wealthy witch, officials [would treat] themselves to a banquet at the expense of the victims estate. (Barbara Walker)(2). All of the victims estate became the property of the government as soon as they were accused. The torture was done in such a businesslike fashion that the relatives were charged for the victims torture and death (4). They were charged for such things as the ropes that bound them and the wood that burned them. (Barbara Walker).(2). Some methods of torturing the accused witches into confessing were thumbscrews, whips, red-hot tongs, and the rack, this lead to there bones being crushed, limbs severed and flesh seared. After being locked up and tortured for days on end, most women would confess in order to die and some would also accuse neighbors and friends hoping to end their own pain (4). Another method of determining the guilt of the accused was to stab needles into her eyes and if an insensitive spot was found then she was considered guilty. A Spanish church even went as far as to conform a statue of the Virgin Mary into a device of torture. They did this by covering the front side of the statue with sharp knives and nails, then they used levers to make the arms of the statue crush the accused against the knives and nails (Jean Plaidy, The Spanish Inquisition) (2). Men would also brutally attack the breasts and genitals of accused witches if they became sexually aroused around her, because it was thought that the witch caused them

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Martin Luther Kings Last Speech

Martin Luther Kings Last Speech Introduction â€Å"I have been to the mountain† was Martin Luther King’s last speech before he was assassinated. In this speech, King aims at maintaining action by encouraging the civil rights activists to continue fighting for racial equality. He uses biblical references to pass his message across to the people. He says that just like the biblical Jews who suffered in the wilderness, but their descendants finally reached the Promised Land, so will the descendants of the black people in the United States.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Martin Luther Kings Last Speech specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More King rallies the people to keep fighting for their rights and never to give up. He refers to the many successes the movements have had so far. He realized that this was the best tactic to encourage the people to make sure that disillusionment does not overwhelm idealism. He compared past events and to make conclusions that all will be well in the future. On most occasions he uses the bible, for instance, he compares the Jews slaves who were persecuted in Egypt, but due to their perseverance, they lived until they were released and eventually reached the Promised Land, to the black slaves in America whom he believed would also finally be free. This was his central claim, which actually comes out clearly in this line â€Å"I want you to know tonight that we as a people will get to the Promised Land† (King 1). This served to encourage the civil rights activists to employ righteousness in their fight for equality. In this speech King was speaking directly to the sanitation workers who were striking in Memphis, but his intention was to reach all African Americans to encourage them to rally behind the movement so that they can achieve their civil rights. He uses many past events to support this claim. For instance, he uses past efforts to illustrate some of the civil rights successes . Among them are the sit-ins that happened in North Carolina, the freedom rides that were witnessed in the South, the Negro activism in states like Georgia, Albany, Alabama, and Birmingham, and also the many supporters who trooped to capital in 1963 to participate in the demonstration in which King gave his â€Å"I have a dream† speech. He also used those fighting injustice in Memphis, Alabama, and Selma to support his claim (King 1). King uses his oratory skills in this speech to create a role of activist to be played by his audience by retelling heroism stories in the past and assuring them that they will eventually succeed even without him around. He employs a superior relationship with the audience by using many personal examples in supporting his claim. This made the people realize that he was a very important person to them. The role of prophet that he gives himself makes people believe in every word that come out of his mouth.Advertising Looking for essay on po litical sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When he says â€Å"I want to thank God once more for allowing me to be here with you† (King 1), he brings out the idea that he is chosen by God to deliver his people from misery. He uses near death experiences that he has gone through to paint himself as a person who has been tested and chosen. He also emerges as a visionary when he claims that he has been on the top of the mountain and has seen the Promised Land (King 1). King uses a well organized chronological structure that he strategically embeds in the context of the time. He travels back to refer to the early successes of the movement in the start of the 1960s and works his way systematically to the present and concludes the speech with a visionary look into the future ahead. By using this structure, King was able to rekindle enthusiasm in his audience by reminding them of their circumstances and encouraging the m to always keep in mind their current troubles (King 1). In short, King claims that the efforts of the civil rights movement will come to bear fruit. He proves this by sharing his dream with the people. Having assumed a prophetic figure, he did not need much proof to strengthen his message although he has cited a few. His message was a humble plea for equality not a demand by blacks that could create fear in the white population. This is shown by his contrasting example of the black women who attempted to kill him and that of the small white girl who admired him. Work Cited King Martin. Ive Been to the Mountaintop. American Rhetoric, 1968. Web.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Write About What You Know

Write About What You Know Write About What You Know Write About What You Know By Michael For thirty years, the mid-term exam for Dr. McAnellys Biblical Literature class was always the same essay question: Describe the wandering journeys of the Apostle Paul. So a college football fullback and his roommate decided they wouldnt study anything else, thereby leaving them more time for other attractive pursuits. Imagine their surprise when the question instead was, Critique the major themes of Jesus Sermon on the Mount. Now, imagine the fullbacks surprise when his roommate nevertheless began to write furiously for the next hour. The fullback stared at his blank test paper for a long time before giving up and leaving the room, but his curiosity was so strong that he peeked at his roommates essay as he walked past. The first sentence read, Who am I to critique the words of the Lord Jesus? Let me rather describe the wandering journeys of the Apostle Paul. Seasoned authors advise, Write about what you know. In fact, you have to write about what you know. Try to write about what you dont know, about which you havent got a clue, and youll be staring at a blank piece of paper for a long time. Its one of the surest ways to contract writers block. If you succeed in actually getting words onto the page, your readers will be staring at it for a long time, trying to figure out what you just said, if not why you wrote it in the first place. Why would anybody write about what they dont know? Why would people do something like that? Because someone important told them to. Essay tests in school are a good example. Your instructor asks you to write about one of the (several) chapters in the textbook that you never got around to studying. Your job, should you choose to accept it, is to employ your literary skills to make your instructor believe that you read and understood the chapter. Changing the question rarely works. Because what they dont know seems more interesting than what they do know. Young writers frequently make that mistake. When you move into the cloud of unknowing to write your piece, youre increasing your competition. In the mid-60s, without having any personal experience with them, lots of American teenagers were probably writing about monsters and spaceships, though these markets were already fully stocked with experienced grown-up writers. None of them wrote about being a real American teenager except S.E. Hinton. So her book The Outsiders got published and their books didnt. Because they value style over communication. Poets sometimes make this mistake. They write about the universal life force, instead of about a tree. Down-to-earth, brass-tacks writing doesnt seem stylish enough. But uninformed writing is less interesting than informed writing. The details which make writing vivid and readable are missing, like a price tag in a store, or somehow off, like a carton of old milk. Writing about what you know is a cure for writers block. Thats one reason why journaling or blogging is so popular among writers. Something must have happened to you today, unless you were dead. Write about it. It didnt happen to anyone else, unless youre a clone. Nobody has the same brain or biography as you, so nobody has the same perspective as you. If they do, I suggest you get your own perspective. You need your own. Dont try to share with your neighbor. Thats cheating. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:When to Capitalize Animal and Plant NamesComma Before ButAppropriate vs. Apropos vs. Apt

Thursday, November 21, 2019

China is pursuing a policy of 'creeping assertiveness' in the south Essay

China is pursuing a policy of 'creeping assertiveness' in the south China Sea - Essay Example It is considered to be the only place that has the depth and expanse to baffle the Japanese and American navies’ ability to reel in the Chinese navy. In an interesting comparison of China’s maritime geography and that of imperial Germany, they argue (convincingly) that China holds an advantage (strategically) in naval competition and rivalry in the South China Sea (Bussert 2011, p.16). According to Antony (2010, p.24), the South China Sea has been identified as a weakness in the strategy of ‘peaceful rise’ that has been adopted by Beijing. The announcement by Zhou Enlai that the waters of the SCS were a ‘vital interest’, China has used its claims to the water body as a stern warning to other nations that its regional dominance could be more aggressive than is insinuated by Chinese leaders. What has been more surprising (and alarming) is the fact that it is clear Beijing has succeeded in splitting the diplomatic harmony and solidarity in ASEAN w ith regards to the issue. Other powers in Asia should take note because their reaction to this matter stands to play a significant strategic role in Indo-Pacific’s future landscape. ... Key words; Assertiveness, South China Sea, PLA Navy Introduction China is one of the most rapidly economically developing nations in the world with a Growth Domestic Product of 1.8 percent expansion in the first quarter of 2012 (Clarke 2010, p.34). Historically, China’s average quarterly GDP growth has risen from 2.15 percent to a record 2.20 percent (considered the highest in history). China’s economy is rated the second largest in the world after the economy of the United States of America. In the last three decades, China’s economy has varied to a great extent from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to the international business towards a more market oriented mode which has a rapidly growing sector. A major component that supports China’s economic growth been ascribed to its high exports. In the quest to promote more economic development as well as the social advancement within the republic of China, the government has taken measures dir ected towards territorial protection, control and expansion (Cordesman 2007, p.31). Discussion The Chinese government has shown aggression towards territorial expansion especially the South China Sea (SCS) leading to an intensive political concerns and creation of a negative effect on the relationship between China and other countries surrounding it (Klare 2001, p.42). The Chinese government has practically claimed the South China Sea by using modes that may lead to military confrontation between China and the ASEAS such as Philippines. This condition has resulted to unresolved conflict between China and especially the Philippines over time. The claims over the South China Sea by

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Autism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Autism - Essay Example Generally individuals afflicted with this neurological condition have difficulty in social interaction and communication. Repetitive and obsessive behavior frequently occurs, as individuals with autism will oftentimes develop intense and focused interests in specific subject matter. A number of theories have emerged regarding the origins and causes of autism. One of the newly emergent theories involves considerations of the individual’s biological clock. Within this mode of understanding, autism is understood as a timing disorder wherein individuals have difficulty determining communication timing. One important consideration in this context of investigation is that of the biological clock. Theorists have explored notions regarding biological clock genes regulating neuronal oscillators in the brain that potentially affect the timing problems of autism. There has been research that has supported this hypothesis, with findings noting that, â€Å"Two Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are enriched in clock genes in DNA obtained from autistic children† (‘Autism’, ppt). The two nucleotides referred to are the Period-1 (Per-1) and the NPAS2. Still, these nucleotides are in non-coding segments, complicating their potential as causing a d isorder. Recognizing the challenge of non-coding nucleotide mutations contributing to a disorder such as autism, researchers have explored the microRNA ("Micrornas provide new," 2011). In these regards, RNA forms secondary nucleotide structures. The miRNA functions through recognizing a seed sequence, as 7 nucleotides at 5’ end binds to a 3’ end of target. Notably, there are basepairing consequences that occur in relation to the microRNA functioning. Among these consequences include the degradation of the mRNA target, a block in translation resulting in new mechanisms of action, and subsequently new data that can activate translation. This is central to the understanding of autism as related to the human’s biological

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Popular Music, Television, and Film Stars Essay Example for Free

Popular Music, Television, and Film Stars Essay Everyone at all ages have grown up admiring and idealizing at least on celebrity, be that an actor, singer or any other famous person. What they do not ask while they are young is whether our idols are people we should be looking up to. Usually when people become older they realize that their role models at the time are not someone they would want their children idolizing now. They come to the conclusion that the person they looked up to wasn’t who they truly were, it was all an act. So should a celebrity be considered a true leader? That is worth debating. By using three characteristics of celebrities it will be known whether or not a celebrity has the potential to be a good leader. To begin, a celebrity can be known for many things, but a leader and great role model is not always one of them. One characteristic of a celebrity is being perfect. Is being perfect possible? No, but Paris Hilton is an example of someone who thinks they need to diet uncontrollably and get plastic surgery to make them seem perfect. This is not nearly close enough to be a true leader, because she is giving children the wrong idea; that it’s okay to be unhealthy and to bad things to your body just to look perfect so everyone likes them. The opposition may argue that it’s not always their fault. An example of this would be Demi Lavato. She suffered from bulimia and dieted because she didn’t like the way she looked. However they are wrong because although she couldn’t control her disease, there is no reason she should have hated herself in the beginning. We need to teach the children of this generation that it’s okay to look different. Not everyone needs to wear tons of makeup and be stick thin. A celebrity who can show all of these ideas is one who is truly a leader. Subsequently, everyone is selfish in their life for their own reasons, but should children look up to people who are selfish all the time? A successful celebrity gets money, fame, and anything they virtually want, but that is not a reason they should be selfish. An example of a selfish celebrity would be Kim Kardashion. Everything she does is related to how she can get more fame. Her tv show, her clothes line, her perfume, even her marriage was to give her more publicity. This is not what a leader would do. The opposition would argue that everyone is selfish so why can’t celebrities be who they are; however, they are wrong because although everyone is selfish it’s not as bad as celebrities and non-famous people aren’t the ones trying to get children and  fans to be just like them. Children need to learn that it is important to set aside time to help those who need more help than they do. John Cena is a great example of this. He is a famous wwe wrestler who gets paid a lot and has many fans, however, he takes the time to support the American Red Cross and goes to see children with diseases and cancer to try and make their day better. This is a great way to show how to be a leader. Lastly, something very common in the celebrity world is failed marriages. How are the newer generation’s children supposed to know that, although what t hey see on the tv and in magazines, they are really supposed to marry someone because they love them and want to be with them for the rest of their lives? â€Å"Till death do us part.† right? Wrong the tv, music, and famous world is showing that it’s okay if marriages don’t work out, that they can just find someone else or someone’s at that matter. These celebrities like Kim Kardashion and Kris Humphries were married for 10 months. The only reason they got married was because marrying a famous basketball player with lots of money would defiantly give Kim the publicity she wanted. The opposition may argue that it’s their life and there’s no reason they should be judged by their private life; however, they are wrong because when someone is brought into this industry, their private life is all everyone hears about. Just because they are famous doesn’t mean they can’t get married because of love. An example of a good couple that shows a leader quality would be Tim McGraw and Faith Hill. They are both country singers and have been married for 16 years with three children. Who said that marriage in showbiz had to end so soon? A leader isn’t someone willing to stage a fake marriage for a bigger fan base. Concisely, these days it is getting increasingly hard to tell the difference between a true leader and role model from a fake one. In the celebrity business there are three characteristics such as, perfection, selfishness, and fakeness that results in, are once role models turning into people who we look down upon. It is important to look at people for who they are as a person and what they can do for the people around them, rather than idolizing people for their fashion, money and fame.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

J.B.Priestley’s play, An Inspector Calls :: English Literature

An inspector calls' - what is the main message and is it still relevant today? We get the impression that she is a when Priestly adds, ‘very pleased with life’. She is ignorant to the world of the working class, and is constantly surrounded by her riches without even considering the lives of other people. During the engagement party, Gerald gives Sheila an engagement ring. This is to represent their relationship and love. Her words on receiving the gift are ‘Oh –Gerald-you’ve got it’. The pause in her sentence indicates the excitement in her voice. She then becomes very involved with the present- like a child receiving a birthday gift. Mr. Birling is about to make his speech about the war and the Titanic, however, he pauses when he realizes that Sheila may not be listening, as she is only concentrating on her ring. This is what a child may do when receiving a toy. This as with both her ‘mummy’ and her father gives us the impression that these people are annoying and makes us dislike them. WHOM 2 BLAME After the inspector leaves the house, they are shocked, but then think about the idea whether the inspector really is the guy he pretends to be and they come to the conclusion that he is not an inspector after all. They find this out by contacting the police who then unfold the truth about him. The play finishes when the police calls saying a young lady died and an inspector is on his way to the Birling house. I think the whole play is very important and a good example of collective responsibility. You understand the problem which follows the behaviour of those people. The content shows the bad treatment of a â€Å"normal â€Å"family towards a person, who lives on a lower social standard, without realizing that they destroy this person’s life. This is as significant for the society of that time as it is for the society in our own time. This will never change. The play wants to show that poor people did not have a chance to change their lives to improve it. This is only possible in our world and in our time. My main reason for thinking that Mrs. Birling is responsible is because she was not only the last step before Eva/Daisy ended her life but because in my eyes she was the most powerful one. Eva/Daisy was at a time where she was most emotional and she must have been feeling J.B.Priestley’s play, An Inspector Calls :: English Literature An inspector calls' - what is the main message and is it still relevant today? We get the impression that she is a when Priestly adds, ‘very pleased with life’. She is ignorant to the world of the working class, and is constantly surrounded by her riches without even considering the lives of other people. During the engagement party, Gerald gives Sheila an engagement ring. This is to represent their relationship and love. Her words on receiving the gift are ‘Oh –Gerald-you’ve got it’. The pause in her sentence indicates the excitement in her voice. She then becomes very involved with the present- like a child receiving a birthday gift. Mr. Birling is about to make his speech about the war and the Titanic, however, he pauses when he realizes that Sheila may not be listening, as she is only concentrating on her ring. This is what a child may do when receiving a toy. This as with both her ‘mummy’ and her father gives us the impression that these people are annoying and makes us dislike them. WHOM 2 BLAME After the inspector leaves the house, they are shocked, but then think about the idea whether the inspector really is the guy he pretends to be and they come to the conclusion that he is not an inspector after all. They find this out by contacting the police who then unfold the truth about him. The play finishes when the police calls saying a young lady died and an inspector is on his way to the Birling house. I think the whole play is very important and a good example of collective responsibility. You understand the problem which follows the behaviour of those people. The content shows the bad treatment of a â€Å"normal â€Å"family towards a person, who lives on a lower social standard, without realizing that they destroy this person’s life. This is as significant for the society of that time as it is for the society in our own time. This will never change. The play wants to show that poor people did not have a chance to change their lives to improve it. This is only possible in our world and in our time. My main reason for thinking that Mrs. Birling is responsible is because she was not only the last step before Eva/Daisy ended her life but because in my eyes she was the most powerful one. Eva/Daisy was at a time where she was most emotional and she must have been feeling

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Event Management Essay

Event management is a part of management studies that aims to apply science of project management to the organization of functions, festivals and special occasions with the aim of successfully conducting the entire event to achieve its purpose. The corporate and business world has realized the significance of a smoothly conducted business in their growth and expansion plan and therefore event management has emerged as an independent market and entrepreneurship area. Today concept and knowledge of event management is applied from events like Olympic, Asian games to corporate parties and even organizing a coffee evening with just 10 guests. The whole idea is infusing professionalism in the entire business of handling the events. The international corporate world has understood the significance of event management as a major public relation exercise that is required for it to seamlessly conduct its operations. This issue takes important form especially when multinational companies are increasingly diversifying their operations. Often they are required to hold promotional events, fete, programs and cultural-social evening in places where they have no prior exposure to the aesthetical tastes and preferences of the local population. Under such circumstances, a flaw or incorrect approach towards presentation and promotional activity can backfire, and bring discredit to the company and its further plans in the popular perception. Under these circumstances, a local event management company with understanding of local customs and tastes can help the multinational corporate giants by successfully organizing the event. Event management offers corporate heads with readymade set of solutions for a wide variety of situations, whether it is conducting franchisee meeting,   a Q&A round with employees, a corporate presentation, a sales and marketing presentation, product launching, satellite video meeting, trade shows and parties, sport shows, and almost every conceivable function involving logistic, management planning and effective and timely mobilization of resources . With integration and convergence of various streams of media, event management also now comprises over media management, press release and public address, thus helping to provide a completely polished front to the corporate sector. As it can be understood, event management requires a sound knowledge by the organizing company on the purpose of the event, target audience, securing sponsorship and exhibiting complete integrity in securing objectives of the event. As a lot has to be achieved in a limited time frame, every event runs on a risk that a slight mistake can result in a flop show, causing embarrassment to the sponsors and the promoters.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Organisational Behaviour Essay

In any organisation, the employers exhibit varied behaviours. Behaviour is a social corporate responsibility (Antal & Sobczak, 2004). An organisation should not just demand some kind of behavior but be incorporated in ensuring that this is achieved. The systematic study of how individuals act in an organisation, either individually or as a group is referred to as organisational behaviour (Michael, 2005). There exists many factors that would shape the way people interact in organisations. These seek to predict, control and explain some facts. Despite major criticisms concerning the ethics of controlling the behavior of workers, organisational behaviour has been very instrumental in the development and success of organisations. In the modern world, organisational behaviour is a rapidly growing field. People from different regional and cultural backgrounds have to work together thus making it necessary to moderate the way they interact. These studies have been integrated with other domains for effectiveness, these are: anthropology, ethics and leadership. The leadership domain seeks to give an insight into the role leadership plays in an organisation in the change management process. An individual learns some behaviour from an organisation either directly or indirectly (ICMR, 2007). Theories widely accepted in learning are cognitive, behaviouristic and social learning theories. Learning is attributed to the association between stimulus and response. In behaviouristic theory, the desired behaviour is achieved through the application of theories on behaviour. This theory tends to deal with those skills learnt to be used later excluding those capabilities that are inborn (Behavioural Theory, 2008). People are taught and learn rather than inherit traits. In the context of ‘Waiting Tables for Godot’ passage, we can analyse some of the traits that are taught rather than the inherent ones. Jean-Pierre Godot, the owner of La Maison taught his staff some of the things he expected them to observe. He taught the workers to work as a team and work excellently for that matter. It is out of this that Diane knew that she had to give her best. How else could she be excellent? In essence, she was putting into practice what was taught to her by Godot; excellence in duty. It is also easy to see that Diane had acquired some other knowledge elsewhere. She had learnt to balance several plates on her arms. Diane could speak French despite living and studying in Australia. It is therefore only wise to conclude Diane should have been taught French. This enabled her to perform well since it is clear from the passage that she was an excellent worker. Customers complemented her for offering efficient service and even gave her tips. Cognitive theory involves learning through mistakes (Domjan, 2003). An individual avoids the path leading to pre-committed mistakes the next time similar activities are undertaken (Jaffee, 2000). In the case passage, when Diane dropped a bowl of bouillabaisse appetiser, her boss yelled at her and even went ahead to deduct $44. 95 form her pay. This taught Diane that carrying many order plates at once was not safe. It also made her realise that Godot was not concerned with the good deeds by the workers but rather by their shortcomings. Slowing down her pace was the immediate lesson that Diane learnt from this experience. From the same mistake, the University of Canberra student realised that with a slower pace, she would make little money to meet her needs. It was only advisable for her to carry on at the same pace but take more caution to avoid any outbursts from her boss. Lastly, the kind of behaviour that is passed on through observation is expounded in social theory. An individual watches some traits that others exhibit and adapts the same. It is very common with children. According to Miller and Dollard (1941), the observer imitates the observed action which is then adapted and rewarded with a positive reinforcement. Diane, a newly employed worker at La Maison observed the cook being scolded by Godot. She immediately learnt that she had no option but to give the best in her capacity if she was to avoid any trouble. By observing the nature of her customers, she learnt to be friendly and even employ some other skills like speaking French when need be. Diane observed that by warmly welcoming customers she had served before, she was able to retain them. She thus employed her courtesy skills to retain customers. Social behavior includes the inherent characteristics. Diane exhibited traits like the art of balancing several plates on her arms. She was also talented in the recommendation of wines that go well with specific meals. This Canberra student had persuasive skills to convince customers to buy lavish desserts by the way she described them. Her memory never failed. She correctly entered her orders and duly delivered them. Moreover, she remembered repeat customers and ushered them back warmly. These are some behavioural traits that are not necessarily taught. They could be inborn. Consequences have been used in many cases to determine the occurrence of behaviour. This is referred to as operant conditioning or instrumental conditioning. Learning occurs only at that point where the learner appreciates the connection that exists between behaviour and its consequences (Wagner, 2005). It is operated in by the environment but maintained by consequences. Reinforcement and punishment could either be positive or negative. The positive aspect is achieved when it is delivered due to some response whereas the negative is withdrawn due to a response. Extinction is another tool of operant conditioning where there exists no change in consequences following some response. In punishment, the behaviour of an individual is weakened following the experience of some negative condition (Operant Conditioning Basics, 1999). It is of significance to note that it is only response that is extinguished, punished or reinforced. Positive reinforcement exists where a pleasant stimulus that enhances a certain behaviour is a result of a response. In ‘Waiting Tables for Godot’, customers kept complementing Diane’s service as a consequence of her excellent service. They would also give tips to this University student. Godot on the other hand always yelled at her workers. The La Maison owner would even use French to express his dissatisfaction. In a way, this made sure things get done the right way. It is seen that even Diane becomes more careful when handling his order plates to avert losses like the one experienced before. Godot explained to new workers what he expected from them; excellent job. This, if taken from Diane’s reaction, shows that workers gave their best because of this initiative. On the other hand, negative reinforcement is a situation where a behaviour is a result of stopping a negative condition, usually considered unpleasant. For example, when Godot scolds his cook and chef, they get things moving. When he yells out his anger at Diane for dropping bouillabaisse appetiser on the carpet, Diane reconsiders how careful she is with her job. She therefore averts the negative consequences where she has to break her employer’s property and even have her pay deducted for compensation. It is also clear that Diane finds some work to do during her vacation than just stay at home to avoid rice and spaghetti meals when she resumes back to Canberra University the following semester. Positive punishment would refer to a situation where a response occurs as a result of an aversive stimulus. This includes the introduction of loud noise or shock. Jean-Pierre Godon knew how to employ this tool. He would yell at his workers if only to get things moving faster. Regularly, he would speak in French if only to drive the point home. At one particular time, when Diane dropped the bouillabaisse appetiser, she was scolded and part of her salary deducted to cater for the losses her employer had incurred. This produced positive change as she became more careful in whatever she handled in La Maison thereafter. When Diane’s pay was slashed, she opted to observe extra caution. Not only was her pay deducted but she also lost a considerable amount of tips because of the slow down in her service. This served to improve the way she handled her order plates. This condition where a favorable outcome is withdrawn following an unpleasant behaviour is known as negative punishment (Wagner, 2005). Both the negative and the positive punishment result to decreased behaviour. There are conditions that result when a behaviour that had been reinforced previously ceases to be effective. This is extinction. In the case passage, Diane is portrayed as a very efficient worker who would go extra lengths to accomplish her duties. For instance, she would balance several plates on her arms which made her avoid many trips to the kitchen. She would also carry out her duties so well that Godot, her boss, never crossed paths with her. However, on the day she messed herself by dropping appetiser of bouillabaisse on the carpet, all these things ceased to be meaningful. Her expertise in balancing several plates in her arms was no longer a positive attribute. It had cost her $44. 95 of her pay. It was therefore not worth going on with this but rather resort to carrying just a few plates at a time. Although she did not break any item in La Maison henceforth, Godot was still irritated with this University student. Godot was not satisfied with her wait staff effort. No matter how hard they tried to fulfil their boss’s demands, Godot would still hurry them up with insults in French. Their effort was therefore extinct. Diane’s life was surely affected by these learning tools in one way or another. Positive reinforcements made her achieve her targets. When customers would complement her, she would feel that she was doing the right thing. This motivated her to offer the best that she could. Customers would tip her, t times to a high of $23 a day which implied to Diane that she would not take rice and spaghetti in the next semester at the University of Canberra. She would also get more customers into Godot’s business place because of her good communication and interpersonal skills. Nonetheless, some negative reinforcement aspects caused her humiliation. When Godot finds her on the wrong and scolds her, she is forced to do away with quite a portion of her pay as compensation for the losses the boss incurs. She is prompted to reduce her service speed to avert similar happenings. When Godot imposes a fine to Diane for her actions, he knows that this will assist this lady avoid carelessness in the future. She is forced to serve lesser customers which implies reduced tips for her. This is positive punishment since it is meant to give positive results. It is out of this that this student becomes cautious with her work. Though this impacted negatively on her goals, losses in the organization was prevented. From the unpleasant behaviour of Godot in the context of Diane, this worker changes and becomes even a better employee as she does not break items anymore but becomes more cautious. There are various ways that an employer would incorporate in their management to yield the desired results. Godot’s idea was to pay per hour and allow the workers have tips from customers. It would thus ensure that at no one particular hour would the workers desire to do nothing. They would always seek to be busy each unfolding hour. This simply meant that Godot would have an all time operational business. This translates to more work and more profits for him. He would also not have to pay for any wasted hours during the day than if he was to pay, say per month. It will also mean that he could employ new employees every hour and avert the problem of absenteeism. Tips on the hand encouraged the workers to serve more customers in anticipation for more tips. This similarly translates to more work and consequently profits for Godot.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Essay on Business Management vs The CelestialsEssay Writing Service

Essay on Business Management vs The CelestialsEssay Writing Service Essay on Business Management vs The Celestials Essay on Business Management vs The CelestialsThe Celestials is the book that uncovers the complex employment relations in the US on the dawn of its rapid industrialization and profound transformations which allowed the US to become one of the leading economies in the world. The book depicts the strike of American employees dissatisfied with their position and conditions of work with Chinese employees arriving to replace them and, thus, to cause the failure of the strike. All these issues are very important for business management because today conflicts between employees and employers are frequent and employers have to resolve such complex, whereas the hiring of new employees is potentially a good option for the employer to resolve the employment conflict fast. However, today, business managers cannot act as simple as Sampson did in the book hiring Chinese. Nevertheless, issues raised by the book are still relevant and reveal the complexity of the employment relations in the US.Chin ese employees arrive to the US in search of a new, better life. In fact, they do not even speak English but their foreman. Nevertheless, they are ready to work hard, even if they receive next to nothing. Chinese employees become the perfect tool in hands of Sampson to suppress the strike of American employees, headed by Crispins, who attempt to force Sampson to create better conditions of work and provide employees with decent pay and workplace safety. Crispins personify the rebellious labor force since they struggle for their rights and they unite their efforts in the strike to oppose to the employer and to force the employer to meet their requirements (Friedman 146). At the same time, the example of Crispins turns out to be effective in terms of the rise of the labor and union movement. For instance, one of the leaders of Chinese employees, Ah Chung, actually becomes a Crispin-like striker because he is fully aware of the unjust and unfair policies to Chinese workers conducted by Sampson.In such a way, the book reveals the complex business management issues, especially when the conflict between employers and employees remains unresolved and leads to the open confrontation between them. The book uncovers possible ways business owners can choose to deal with the strike. In fact, they have a few options to choose from (Zaleska, Gratton, Bleackley 123). For instance, they may act just like Sampson did, when he referred to Chinese employees as strike breakers, who arrived to replace American employees and who were ready to work for next to nothing. Such strategy is efficient for the employer but destructive for the labor movement because it leads to the confrontation between employees rather than between employees and employers. At this point, it is important to place emphasis on the fact that the conflict originates because of the unwillingness of Simpson to offer employees basic employment benefits and create normal conditions of work. Instead, he preferred tr eating employees as mere commodities and to rip off maximum profits even at cost of the life of his employees.In such a situation, the arrival of Chinese employees was a salvation for him and his business which could be ruined, if the strike continued (Bell 182). Anyway, without Chinese employees, he would not have other options to force American employees to get back to work. Instead, he would have to negotiate and introduce changes which could meet demands of employees, at least partially.At the same time, the arrival of Chinese employees and their destructive impact on the strike raised not only the tension between employees but it also caused the raise of racism because white employees viewed Chinese as a threat to their position in the US labor market (Clarke 16). As Chinese workers took their positions, American employees grew angry and turned into racist in relation to Chinese employees. Therefore, the book also shows the rise of the racial tension which is very important not only in social terms but also in business management terms. To put it more precisely, the tension between Chinese and American employees raised the problem of their work together, although they could work in one company, for instance. Therefore, business managers should come prepared to interracial conflicts in the workplace environment.Another important business management problem raised by the book is the problem of the effective communication between managers of the company and Chinese employees. In fact, Chinese employees, who did not speak English, were perfect for the employer because they were ready to work hard for minimal wages. However, Chinese employees were a nightmare for the average manager, who had to communicate with them on the regular basis and manage their work and performance. Obviously, the language barriers were unsurpassable and it was only due to Charlie Sing, the English speaking foreman of Chinese employees, they could communicate somehow. However, in the contemporary business environment, for instance, such communication would hardly be effective.Thus, the book uncovers the complexity of employer-employee relations in the US and the rise of the labor movement.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Divine Passive Voice

Divine Passive Voice Divine Passive Voice Divine Passive Voice By Jacquelyn Landis Most writers know the difference between active and passive voice. In active voice, there’s a clearly identified agent performing an action: Tiger Woods made a hole in one. The subject of this sentence, Tiger Woods, is the agent who is performing the action: making a hole in one. In passive voice, the subject isn’t performing the action; it’s being acted upon by the agent: A hole in one was made by Tiger Woods. Most experts agree that active voice is preferable over passive voice wherever possible, and most writers know this. However, did you know that there’s another form of passive voice? This one is called divine passive voice. In a sentence using divine passive voice, no agent of action is ever identified: A hole in one was made. Since there’s no agent, the action in the sentence is considered an act of God- thus, divine passive voice. Granted, this is a tongue-in-cheek assessment because it’s pretty unlikely that the hole in one happened all by itself even though Tiger Woods is sometimes attributed with divinely inspired talent. Divine passive voice is most useful for obscuring information. Perhaps Tiger didn’t want to buy the customary round of drinks in the clubhouse to celebrate his hole in one, so he insisted that club officials keep his identity secret. Politicians and other bureaucrats are fond of divine passive voice. It appears to give complete information, and it sounds official, thereby duping readers: Mistakes were made. (Who, exactly, made the mistakes?) Gas prices were raised. (By whom?) Unless you’re deliberately trying to avoid assigning blame or you’re intentionally trying to be vague, steer clear of divine passive voice. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Types of Rhyme50 Idioms About Roads and PathsTestimony vs. Testimonial

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Personal Development, Self-Management and Reflection Essay

Personal Development, Self-Management and Reflection - Essay Example Introduction Part 1: Self-Evaluation, Essential Skills As described by the Applied Personal and Professional Development Module, a skill is something one can learn, and then develop with further practice, reflection and refinement. While talent is something people are born with, skills are learned throughout the course of one’s life, and then further refined down the road. An individual talented in a certain field can quite easily excel there in no time flat, and may in fact go on to dominate that field completely. Both of these are definitely assets in any field, and HE training is no exception. Given proper training, even an otherwise unremarkable individual can surpass someone who is talented but lazy. Former US President Calvin Coolidge (n.d.) said it best when he said that ‘nothing in the world can take the place of persistence’, and that nothing is more common than someone who is talented yet unsuccessful. And in this regard, I for one am proud to say that w hile my own talent may yet be questioned, my persistence and drive have always been beyond reproach. Not only do I possess ample quantities of persistence and determination, I can also say that I have other virtues such as determination and commitment in spades. As I’m sure I’ve displayed at various points throughout the course, I’ve consistently remained on task no matter what happened, and rarely ever coasted. On the flip side, my time management leaves a lot to be desired, and I may not always be objective when it comes to self-evaluation – that is, at times I tend to either deemphasize or overemphasize my achievements. Procrastination is also another habitual problem for me, especially since I often find it hard to get anything done without a healthy (sometimes even beyond healthy) amount of time pressure to get my heart racing. And as for technical skills, I possess the skills highlighted by Steven and Fallows (1998) as being among the most important , such as skills in problem-solving, planning, and communication. These are said to be among the most important of all. All other important skills one will use in his school life as well as his career are rooted on these. Part 2: Action Plan One of my shortcomings when it comes to academic skills is the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in general, something cited by the UK Department for Employment and Learning (2011) to be among the essential skills for adults. As stated by its spokesperson Deidre McGill, the literacy and numeracy problems experienced by some adults have prevented them from reaching their full potential – which is exactly why they are problems within myself that need to be addressed the most. This being the case, I intend to sharpen my proficiency in making use of ICT, and am willing to take related crash courses should the need arise. Aside from this, I myself admit that I have some problems where information handling is concerned. Shei la Corrall (1998) of the University of Reading defines this as a set of skills including information sources, evaluation criteria, navigation methods, manipulation techniques and presentation issues – which is to say that I have difficulty at times in discerning which particular bits of information should be given greater emphasis, and how best to present them. That

Friday, November 1, 2019

INDIAN NEGOTIATION STYLES Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

INDIAN NEGOTIATION STYLES - Essay Example A break from socialist policies to a capitalist oriented economic structure has been cited as one of the contributing factors to the country’s economic growth. Western countries have increased their levels of interest in the country for purposes of economic partnership. India’s high population estimated at over a billion has attracted foreign investors who seek market for their products or cheap labor. However engaging with India demands a deeper connection with the culture, attitudes, and philosophies underlying their business practices. The Problem Multinationals and other global business entities that have attempted to establish their businesses in India have been faced with unique challenges that demanded the understanding of the corporate climate. The levels of success or failure in Indian business are directly related to the manner in which international players adjust to the unique character of Indian culture. Studies have established a strong connection between culture and business in the Indian context. Past and recent analyses on Indian negotiating style show that the styles adopted in Indian business environment are largely consistent with their cultural believes, social values, and attitudes towards life in general (Stephen, 2010). Indians embrace family values and respect the aspect of honesty, respect, order, and hierarchy. Indian culture also features a strong element of interpersonal communications and relationships. The individual is never separate from the deal. They view the negotiation in human terms rather than strictly technical business processes. In essence, Indian negotiating styles combines the values of culture honesty and details in ways that focus largely on the results rather than the processes. It is therefore important for business theorists to establish ways of establishing ways through which the synergies of culture, attitudes, and values can be incorporated into business practice. The Problem Background In India business is considered as a culture and not simply a means towards profits. Success and failure are assessed in terms of the character and ability of agents rather than logical outcomes of strategies and processes (Martin, & Chaney, 2009). In the context of international business, the negotiation process in India is considered, in many circles, as a process of balance of power and an adjustment of equilibriums between the presumed cultural greatness of the west and Indian culture. Cultural balance and cultural universalism acquire more prominence to challenge the negative assumptions resident in theories of cultural relativism as understood in business context. Indian negotiating styles significantly rely on the details (Zubko, & Sahay, 2010). Issues are broken down into their constituent parts and analyzed in accordance with the manner in which they relate to the bigger picture. In essence, the process entails the realization of a range of issues that connect with outcomes. Usually , the focus begins with the bigger picture before attention is given to the driving factors and the specifics of the deal. Clarity and order in the details of the deal becomes necessary for purposes of assessing the feasibility of the deal. Naturally, Indians prefer the guidance of clear data and mathematical procedure towards the attainment of a given goal. This trait is consistent with the cultural attachment to matters of mathematical and scientific importance.

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Riesman, how does the rise of bureaucratic Essay

Riesman, how does the rise of bureaucratic - Essay Example The â€Å"inner directed† domain of individuality loses primacy when personal values are compromised for the sake of gratifying other people. In a bureaucratic type of environment, social acceptance is deemed to be very significant. Moreover, in a mass society dominated by the attitude of following trends and fashion, the â€Å"other directed† features rule out the â€Å"inner directed†. The transition occurs whenever an individual becomes aware of the relevance of coping up with the changing times. The moment an individual learns to filter out messages from the social environment and to process these messages to something that would be beneficial for the self, then the shift from the â€Å"inner directed† to the â€Å"other directed† takes place. In simpler terms, â€Å"inner directed† character denotes individuality or independent thinking whereas â€Å"outer directed† means cooperation and the likelihood to compromise, which is the fundamental attitude requirement of advance capitalism (Kivisto 1998: p. 112). Riesman further asserts that the shift in the social character was brought about by the transition of the society. He had delineated three stages of this societal transformation: the traditional, the inner directed and the outer directed. For him, the traditional stage is the best form of social character because it has the potentiality to develop in a high degree (p. 112). In these levels of social development, Riesman integrated the concept of the old and the new middle class. The old middle class that thrived in the traditional stage were the feudal lords and other individuals from an aristocratic blood. The new middle class that arose in the contemporary period are the entrepreneurs who are driven not by competition but cooperation. These two middle classes that existed from different times were in conflict when it comes to social character. The old middle class is more inclined on

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Resource Planning and Accounting Informations

Resource Planning and Accounting Informations ERP has become one of the most popularity systems for a company that planning to implement a full ERP system to increase the productivity and efficiency on current business process flow. This report objective will discuss on the definition and function of ERP system, advantages and disadvantages that will bring to an organization after the implementation. Which and what major element and factor that needs to be well taking care for a successful implementation. The major implication of AIS will also further discuss in this report and how AIS will be affected with the implementation of the software. Introduction An Information system (IS) is any combination of Information technology and peoples activities using that technology to support operations, management, and decision making.(Miranda, E., 2010). ERP which is Enterprise Resource Planning is business software systems in different type of industries and companies. (Vala, P., 2010). ERP system is a process of integration of different data and sources from different department of one organization under one single unit system. ERP software that will make sure this integration to be work accurately and effectively. While AIS which stands for Accounting Information system is a computerized system that gather all the data, stores and then processes it into information used by managers, investor and creditors. This information generated from AIS can eventually help the company decision maker to operate organizations more smoothly. Main Body 3.1 Role and Purpose of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems With the growth of technology, everything have found in rapidly changing especially for business environment. Most of the organizations have choosing to implement the ERP software as the best solution which ERP is the only system that designed and developed to integrate and linked all the information among the internal department system. Major role of ERP is to streamline the business operation and workflow. All functional departments that are involved in operations or production can be integrated by using one system, while the elimination of the unnecessary manual work has simplified the business process. Production planning team can directly check for the goods produce process through the latest status updated by production operator. According to Sheldon D.H (2005), ERP maintain the inventory accuracy that enhance the process of tracking on supplier purchased and planning team are able to predict the demand of the market based on input from various department, the system can even schedule a plan when the product shall start produce and when to buy in extra raw material. In finance module, ERP allows a company to maintain their financial information, assist a company save a sum of money for long term while efficiency, performance and productivity will be improved as well. A company is also able to study their processes, earnings, and performance by combining the operation information with the financial information. With this information, a company can become more competitive and productive and so it can gain more customer satisfaction. Perceived benefits and drawbacks for companies of implementing ERPs There are many different type of ERP that serve businesses varying procedure types. With the ERP solution there are numerous benefits after an organization implementing the ERP system example in department of Sales, Human Resource, Finance, Procurement and Production. The ERP system will integrate all the data from other system so that the information will not have to be entered into several systems which will save a real time and manpower for the manual work. Every department information are linked and the sales person no longer need to take time to check with production or warehouse for the goods delivery status, checking with finance on the term on payment This knowledge indirectly can increase the sales performance and improve customer satisfaction. HRM system developed in the payroll module, recruitment module and HR Management module to ease the human resource department in operating their daily workflow and help to increase the efficiency and deliver the best service to their employees. They no longer need to manually count for the thousands of employees salary, overtime, incentive and other allowance. Besides saving up a lot of time, this may also reduce the risk of human error and mistake in calculating. The employees attendances are now even easier with the punch in/out system. By implement the E-pay statement its help the organization to reduce costs and work load of HRD as well, employees can access to corporate intranet to view, to save or to print the pay slip. (Edward, J., 2008) In Production department, most of the organization has using the Baan, BPCS, ERPLN, and ERPLX. It has developed solutions for the company that covers the bar-coding of transactions, such as receiving, put away, cycle counting, production order completions, and shipping. This has increased the productivity and cost reducing. From the warehouse to the shop floor, material and manpower processes become easier, complements and extends the existing ERP applications, empowers users in the production department speed up transactions, and ultimately eliminates the root causes of data inaccuracy. For purchasing department with Purchase Order System, the employees are able to go for electronic market place to order the stationary/ tools and consumable. By clicking a submit button, in about 3 minutes supplier can actually receive the order from the company. This has enhances the information sharing among one company and the supplier. Manager are easily to check which employee are creating the PO and which preferred supplier is selected on the order that its actually ease and shorten the lead time for the process, as lead time is shorten, production operation are able to meet the schedule and on time delivery for orders. Disadvantages of implementing ERP system: The most common disadvantages of implementing an ERP system are the high cost. (OLeary, D. E., 2010). According to Escalle et al, 1999, the cost might be a two o three percent from the revenues for the startup and on-going maintenance fees. Some hidden implementation costs like buying software, hardware, expert consultation fees, staff training cost that will incur to smoothen the project as the implementation process will need the expert consultation and IT administrator in developing this kind of system. (Mabert, V. 2002). The licensing fees can be one of the huge costs that need to be paid annually which depending on the size of the software established. That is why the expensive cost and long times consuming to implement may not be acceptable to each company specially for those small-medium size business. Besides, there is limitation on ERP software customization. ERP system can be a complex and difficult to use software, the organization daily activities will be impacted and usually will involve business process reengineering to fit the current standard process after the ERP implementation. (Benjamin, B. and Paul, A., 2004) There is a risk of failure on the implementation process if an organization did not having a proper planning. Inadequate resources, training, inexperience staff and invest not within budget will bring the company down to winding up too. Role and purpose of Accounting Information Systems (AIS) A primary role of AIS is to fasten the financial transaction recording, accountants that input the financial transaction into the AIS that will create information and financial reporting for review. Besides, AIS also important in support management to get timely information in decision making. AIS are usually web or server based which provide a centralized place where financial data stored, allowing managers have quicker access to review the financial information for that organization. Accountants play roles of tremendous significance in the economy. Without information expertise of accountants, business will be unable to evaluate their cost and profit position, gauge product or business unit performance, or to plan future financial success (Martin, B., 1996). Well-organized AIS will make everyday business a lot easier and more effective (Hall, 2001). How AISs may be affected by the implementation of a full ERP system. Before ERP implementation, finance department employee are still using the pen-paper basis in recording finance transaction, legacy system that only able to focus on one function and cannot be replaced. After the implementation of a full ERP system with SAP, AIS seems to have bigger changes in all the function. SAP that will integrates all the business transaction that entered from different area of operation. Thus, employee from different branches or division can automatically access to review the information at whatever place and however often it is necessary while in a discussion or meeting with the accurate and timely information. Thus, it really saves a great deal of time. AIS will make the accounting activities quicker and accurate as the transaction and records are prepared with the system and this has indirectly reduced human error and mistakes. It is also increased flexibility in information generation and improved quality of reports and financial statements. (Spathis and Constantinides 2003) AIS help to maintain financial control and accountability. (Joel, D. Wisner et al, 2009). Financial information are reliable and up to date all the time in order to prevent the management had use the old and out-dated information for decision making as with the uses of irrelevant data may seriously affect the decision in reducing cost, raise profit, increase sales and purchase new assets and etc. The merged of ERP and AIS has also improving the auditor task while auditing task while performing auditing in the company. Each transaction record can link to other related transaction record or softcopy attachment with just a click. (Anon, 2010) For negative effect, the integration process will be very complex and consume a long period to complete, thus it will incurred a very high cost for an organization. Data security not guarantee safe because info are shared and linked among the module within the ERP system, some of the important financial or business strategic information might easily spread out to the market or competitor that will affect the business strategic. Major Implication of AIS There are several components to the AIS such as transaction processing system, general ledger or financial reporting system and the management reporting system. (Hall, J.A., 2004). Major implications of AIS are to analyzed and determine whether the information should captured by the AIS and its speed up the bookkeeping process which bookkeeping mean to keep track the day to day activities of one organizations income and expenses, to collect necessary financial information for reporting and tax purpose, thereby improving the company profitability. (Anderson, C., 2010) After the bookkeeping process, system will automatically generate those data into information to generate a reporting that will use by both internal and external parties and reporting format may vary from different users for different purpose. (Anderson, C., 2010) Conclusion The implementation of ERP has a big impact for an organization business performance especially in accounting module that help to make the accounting transaction become easier and manageable, thus many of the other small-medium size organization can actually take consideration for implementation of ERP system in order to improve the productivity and efficiency and most importantly to maintain competitive. ERP system that will have drawbacks if the implementation process did not manage correctly, if an organization that required a successful implementation, top management should have a plan ahead that consist of the time consuming, the implementation cost, enough expert consultation on the process and special training provided to their staff.