Thursday, December 26, 2019

The Archaic and Classical Greek Periods Essay - 1279 Words

Greek society is different from our won. The concepts that assist us to describe contemporary religious situations are quite unsuitable to use toward the analysis of what the Greeks regarded as divine. With this in mind, we can then be able to look at the outline of the practice of hero cult in both the Archaic and Classical Greek periods. Each of these periods has their own distinctive cultural identity. This essay will look at political life as the most prominent significance for these communities to perform heroic cults. Heroes and Hero Cult â€Å"The word hero appears in Greek language with a twofold meaning. On one hand it is used for denoting a divine being, who lived a mortal life, but after doing some great deed deserved to become god.†¦show more content†¦While worship of the Olympian gods was generally Pan-Hellenic, took place during the day, and was directed towards the sky, hero worship was generally a local tradition associated with the night and the local earth. Physically, cult activities would center on the presumed tomb of the hero. The immediate area around the tomb could be separated from other burials or localities by a wall or monument. Hero cults present plenty of opportunities for collective memory and disregard through at least three categories of reference: the location of hero’s tomb, the identity of the hero himself and the identity created for the individual worshiper in relationship to the hero, and the moment of hero’s death in the mythic past and the seasonally recurring rituals performed in the here and now of the sacrificed. These memories are often distinctly political in nature. The Archaic Period The Greek Archaic Period, (c. 800- 479 BCE) is preceded by the Greek Dark Age, (c.1200- 800 BCE), followed by the Classical Period (c. 510- 323 BCE), (Lloyd, 2012). One of the most important aspects to note with regards to the Archaic Period is the politics and law. These were some of the vast changes experienced during this period and mainly occurred due to the increase of the Greek population, (the sharp rise in population at the start of the Archaic period brought with it theShow MoreRelatedThe Period Of Greek Art866 Words   |  4 Pagesthe times in Greek art, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic periods have changed overtime from the sculptures in the form, style, and symmetry. The Archaic period lasted from 700 to 500 BCE and the sculptures haven’t yet mastered in sculpting showing realism. Their style of sculpting was similar to the Egyptians in the way that they made the bodies of the sculptures rigid with both arms on their sides and with a foot stepped forward (Greek Archaic Art). By the end of the Archaic period in ca 500 BCERead MoreArt History Paper: Transformation Between Sculpture and Early Classical Period1113 Words   |  5 Pagessculpture of the late archaic period and that of the early Classical period. Note how these imply a change in relationship of the viewer to the work of art. Throughout history, sculptures have developed significantly. The Western tradition of sculptures began in Ancient Greece along with Egypt and many other ancient civilizations around the world. Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the archaic period and as time evolved into the classical period more detailed and sensibleRead MoreAncient Greek Art - Essay1066 Words   |  5 PagesAncient Greek Art Ancient Greece was a remarkable place of learning and civilization. Many of the institutions developed at the time are still in use today, such as universities and democratic governments. Ancient Greece is also known for its incredible artworks, which have influenced many cultures through centuries. As with all things, the Ancient Greeks were innovators in the field of art and developed many new styles and techniques which have been used by countless artists ever since. AncientRead MorePeriods of Greek Art682 Words   |  3 Pages Greek art has changed throughout the years, yet some basic forms have remained. Time, technique, as well as historical events have helped shape the way art has evolved since 600 B.C. Three important periods in Greek art are the Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods. We will discuss how art has changed throughout these periods, what influences led to change, as well as why it changed. We will also discuss what has remained constant through these periods. Since people’s perceptions and tasteRead MoreEssay on Advertisement: Greek Statue and Perfume1462 Words   |  6 PagesAdvertisement: Greek Statue and Perfume While flipping through the pages of a fashion magazine, my fingers stop abruptly as my eyes catch an image of a nude man holding a clothed woman. The man has a muscular body and is effortlessly supporting the woman whos body is arched backwards, her arms hang in a swan-like manner. On the ground by her left foot lays a paint palette and her right hand is grasping a paint brush. The room that they are in appears to be a studio with press board floors,Read MoreGreek Mythology : The Epic Tale The Iliad1179 Words   |  5 PagesGreek mythology played a large role in Greek artistic styles and functions. In the case of this study, the mythological god Apollo is the subject of the artistic works of the votive known as the â€Å"Mantiklos Apollo† and the statue of â€Å"Apollo† that was found in Pireaus. These figures show a natural progression in style and technique. They are important because they represent the sacred beliefs and superstitions of their respective cultures and time periods. The two stylistic periods represented inRead MoreMarble Head of a Ptolemaic Queen1348 Words   |  6 PagesQueen Daniel R. Diaz Professor Shelby Art History 101 December 11, 2004 This work of art is from the Greek, Hellenistic period, c. 270- 250 B.C.E. This fifteen inch marble bust corresponds to a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty according to the typical facial features of the ruling family at that time. The Ptolemaic dynasty occurred when there was a succession of Macedonian Greeks over Egypt from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. until the annexation of Egypt by Rome and the suicideRead MoreFinal Business Plan1230 Words   |  5 Pages| Art History MidtermStudy online at | 1. | A Classical colonnade around a building or courtyard is called a | | peristyle | 2. | A half-column attached to a wall is called a/an | | Engaged column | 3. | A plain or decorated slab on a Doric frieze which alternates with the triglyphs is called the | | Metopes | 4. | A series or row of columns usually spanned by lintels is called a/an: | | Colonnade Read More The History of Greek Architecture Essays1042 Words   |  5 PagesThe History of Greek Architecture The architecture of ancient Greece is represented by buildings in the sanctuaries and cities of mainland Greece, the Aegean islands, southern Italy and Sicily, and the Ionian coast of Turkey. Monumental Greek architecture began in the archaic period, flourished through the classical and Hellenistic periods, and saw the first of many revivals during the Roman Empire. The roots of Greek architecture lie in the tradition of local Bronze Age house andRead MoreClassical Greek Sculpture Analysis Essays1215 Words   |  5 PagesClassical Greek Sculpture Analysis Riace Bronzes (Statue A) This classical Greek sculpture is titled the Riace Bronzes. The Riace statues are two life-size bronze statues each weighing nearly a ton. Statue A which is depicted above is of a young warrior, while statue B which is not depicted is of an older warrior wearing a helmet. In this analysis I will be concentrating on Statue A. The sculptor of this statue remains unknown; however most experts

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Fighting the Juarez Cartel - 648 Words

Fighting the Juarez Cartel Introduction: The War On Drugs has been an incredibly long, ineffective and costly initiative aimed at stemming the flow of illegal drugs into the United States with a specific focus on the well-worn trafficking paths snaking inward from south of the Mexican border. The failure of the War is perhaps best reflected in the incredible carnage and violence which continue to grip key border regions like Juarez. This territory, controlled by the notorious Juarez cartel, is the site of ongoing turf wars with rival drug peddlers, the Sinaloa Cartel, as well as with law enforcement and paramilitary groups of varying degrees of corruption. Lawmakers partnered in the United States and Mexico have been absolutely flummoxed over how to address the current state of affairs, which is in a decided state of intensification. Evidence suggests, however, that contrary to the strategy of heightened militancy taken on by both federal governments, the real path to better enforcement against the cartel is to disrupt the steady influx of guns and military-grade weaponry. Law Enforcement Strategies: Indeed, though the War on Drugs has persisted for decades to create a state of worsening chaos in Mexicos border regions, 2008 would mark a turning point. The declared militancy of then President Felix Calderon would lead to something of an arms race between police officials and cartels. Within this race, violence, intimidation and murder would also become key tactics forShow MoreRelatedMexican Cartels1044 Words   |  5 Pages Attention getter/ Bullets begin flying, armored soldiers and drug cartel members fight it out on the steets killing each other and the surrounding civilians that are innocently just watching as they are caught in the cross fire. Now you may wonder where is this happening..Irag? Afganistan? No Its actually just south of us its happening in Mexico. C. I know this because as crazy as it sounds one of my cousins is in a drug cartel and I’ve seen the bullet holes, the blown up buildings, the blown upRead MoreMexican-American Drug War1105 Words   |  5 PagesMexican drug-trafficking cartels are said to have been established in the 1980s by a man named Miguel Angel Felix Gallardo, also known as â€Å"The Godfather†. With the help of Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo and Rafael Caro Quintero, Miguel started the Guadalajara Cartel, which is one of the first to have thrived from association with the Colombian cocaine trade. The two men who helped Miguel Gallardo establish the cartel were arrested, so Gallardo, the single leader of the cartel â€Å"was smart enough to privatizeRead MoreMexican Drug Cartel Analysis Essay1433 Words   |  6 Pagesorganizations. However, a close examination of Sinaloas evolution demonstrates the group is hardly the hallmark of civility. In fact, the history of Mexicos cartel wars over the past decade reveals that Guzman, his Sinaloa Federation and the various cartels with which they partner have been more territorially aggressive than any other Mexican cartel. Expansion and Escalation Sinaloa incursions upset the balance of power that Miguel Angel â€Å"El Padrino† Felix Gallardo established in the late 1980s whenRead MoreMurder Capital Of The World1794 Words   |  8 Pages2010 compared to only 300 murders in 2006. The statistics dubbed Ciudad Juarez as the murder capital of the world during these years. The ongoing war between the once dominant Juarez Cartel and the current reigning rival Sinaloa Cartel spurred the homicide rate in this crucial drug trafficking route. Recent speculations are that the Sinaloa Cartel led by Joaquin â€Å"El Chapo† Guzman Loera has surpassed the waning Juarez Cartel and taken control of Cd. Juarez’s territory (Shoichet). Just like both groupsRead MoreMovements Rising from Drug Cartels in Mexico1277 Words   |  5 Pagesbeen existed for many decades, but now it is expanding further due to the born of new drug trafficking organizations or cartels. The cartels fight against each other to win control or to open new trafficking routes into the United States, on their fights many innocent people die or disappear every day. Residents from some states tired of all the crimes committed by the cartels and sometimes the authorities; had decided to protect themselves by forming self- defense groups Also, other movement hasRead MoreThe Economics Behind Drug Trafficking and Cartels in Mexico: A Study of the Cartel’s Influence on Mexico and the Expansion to West Africa 3042 Words   |  13 Pagesin areas where drug cartels are present. The war against drug trafficking is an ever-present problem, and is seemingly always growing more violent as the cartel’s and gangs power. Drugs are obviously not a constructive product, and countries such as Mexico are suffering in terms of image, prosperity, safety and politics due to their abundance of drug related problems. Drugs have caused a staggering and horrific amount of deaths through violence between the rival drug cartels, as well as governmentalRead MoreOverivew of Mexicos Drug War1824 Words   |  8 Pagesrise of dozens of Mexican cartels, the Mexican government has constantly been fighting an ongoing war with these criminal organizations. The cartel organizations have a primary purpose of managing and controlling illegal drug trafficking operations in Central America and South America to the United States. Violence on a massive and brutal scale has emerged due to the nature of the illegal drug trade. Because the drug trade is vastly widespread, cartels are o ften fighting one another and competingRead MoreU.s. Department Of The Criminal Justice Field1691 Words   |  7 PagesEventually, I decided to do a map that will focus at a state level on the territories within Mexico that transnational criminal organizations have a dominant influence. According to the U.S. Department of Justice National Drug Intelligence Center, drug cartels can be define as â€Å"†¦large, highly sophisticated organizations composed of multiple [Drug Trafficking Organizations] DTOs and cells with specific assignments such as drug transportation, security/enforcement, or money laundering† (2010). Also, it isRead MoreThe Fight Against Drug Trafficking Essay1977 Words   |  8 Pagespast and present have taken to the military to try and eradicate the problem, but have been met with force. As a result of the cartel violence, the rising death toll has hit a staggering number. While the number itself is substantial, the manner used by these organizations to commit these acts of violence range from kidnappings, to decapitations and mass killings. Drug cartels have not stopped short of any means necessary to meet their goals and have even joined forces with once rival gangs to do soRead MoreThe High Cost of Drugs972 Words   |  4 Pages H eres a look at what I believe more people need to know about the Mexican Drug War and Cartel. The Mexican drug cartels have been like a disease spreading like a wild fire all over Mexico over the years. The Mexican government has been fighting a war with drug traffickers for a long time. Also, drug cartels have been fighting with each other for control of territories in Mexico. Over 60,000 people have been killed from 2006 to 2012, according to Human Rights Watch. Many people have been robbed

Monday, December 9, 2019

Critical Criminology Companion Theory

Question: Discuss about the Critical Criminology Companion Theory. Answer: Introduction A crime is an act that violates law or legal ethics. Criminology deals with the study of crime. There are various theories on criminology that have developed over past 250 years while some of them have become irrelevant[1]. The concept of criminology began in the 18th century when classical school of criminology was invented by an Italian scholar Cesare Beccaria and then in the 19th century the positivists approach of criminology was defined by Cesare Lombroso. In the 20th century, two more criminology theories were invented and these were social structural criminology and social process criminology. There are several factors which is the reason of criminal offences. The factors can be psychological, social, geographical, political and economical. The scientific study about criminals and crime is known as criminology. The rate of crime has increased over the years. It has negative effect on the person who is the victim of crime and on the locality which is affected with crime[2]. The classical versus positivists schools of thought During the mid-18th century an intensifying debate started among the scholars regarding a more rational way to criminal punishment in order to abolish the cruel and harsh public executions which were used to make the people scared and be obedient. The concept of Utilitarianism was invented by an Italian scholar Cesare Beccaria and he said that the behaviour of a people is highly motivated with the avoidance of pain and pursuit of pleasure. In case of Classical School of Criminology formulating decisions are described with deterring crime[3]. It is believed by classical school that human commit the act which is the criminal act but they have their freedom to choose right or wrong which cannot be prohibited. According to him, crimes only results when rewards and pleasures on attempting a crime will be greater than that of punishment as in this case the person who is attempting the crime becomes so engrossed with the thought of that reward, the pain of punishment gets faded away from his mind[4]. Different elements of classical theory are- People have that willing capacity to choose their own preferences as lawful solutions to settle their crimes and problems. Crime becomes really appealing hen it gives great benefits just with a little effort. It is possible to control crime with the fear of punishment. Punishments which are perceived to be obvious, swift and severe will depress criminal behaviour. Certain and severe behaviour is noticed in the punishment given for the crime. In the 19th century, a new concept was discovered by Cesare Lombroso, known as the father of the criminology. This concept is called positivist theory and the views of this concept created a questionable existence of the classical theory[5]. Positivist School of Criminology believes in rational independence where criminal behaviour is presumed and qualified measurement is done on the number of crime[6]. Lombroso mentioned in his book of The Criminal Man that those who are criminals they are born with some physical traits which differ from the normal persons for instances, the criminals are born with physical features like high cheekbones, flattened noses, hard eyes, baldness, scanty beards, fleshy lips and have no sensitivity to pain[7]. These physical characteristics are also possible if a person inherits the nature of criminology from his or her parents or ancestors. Lombroso modified his positivist theory and thus other two types of theories were identified and these are the criminal old and the insane criminal. He further concluded that criminality tends to attempt less serious crimes and the insane criminal are not inborn criminals and they are turned criminal later due to alteration of their brain which automatically depresses their morals, ethics and virtues. Changes in understanding victimisation over time Victimisation refers to the state of being victimised. In the 18th century Cesare Beccaria said that the punishment has to be really severe so that the criminals dont even think of attempting a crime and this will also make them realise that the pain of punishment will outweigh the reward from the crime. Then in the 19th century, this theory was argued and the positivists told that the punishment must fit the criminal and not the crime and Cesare Lombroso told that criminals are born with some physical traits which make them appear different from those who are normal people. Again in the 20th century, social structural criminology was discovered which described that society is an organism and treated crime as a state of social pathology. Apart from the above theories, there are four theories of victimisation and these are described below- The victim precipitation theory- This theory states that those who have been victims of crime can get indulge either actively or passively in criminal offences that can lead them to injury or even death. The passive precipitation means when the victim unconsciously expresses behaviours that instigate a sense of attack. For example- the minority groups and the sexual oriented people often faces violence due to their nature of threatening people holding a special position[8]. Active precipitation on the other hand means that victimisation occurs due to provocative nature of the victim himself or herself such as a woman who gets raped active contribute to be victimised due to her provoking dress, relationship or being too intimated to a stranger. Precipitation theory is based on the structure which is based on the structure of oriented nature of crime. The lifestyle theory- This theory states that individuals are victimised due to their own lifestyle choices which invites a criminal offence to take place with the persons who have made such lifestyle choices like going alone at night, dwelling in bad areas of town or making friendship with bad companies. This theory also states that victimisation is not a random process but the choice of a lifestyle can put a person in danger of getting victimised. The lifestyle behaviours of the persons are the contributing reasons of victimisation since those individuals put themselves in the elevated risk of such danger[9]. With the help of several premises lifestyle theory is constructed. Criminal victimization is followed by uneven time and space. Deviant place theory-this theory states that more an individual will be exposing to dangerous places, the more higher will be his chance to fall victim of a crime. Deviant place theory is also known as Victim precipitation theory which suggests innate ideas about confrontation with the criminal when crime is performed by anyone. For example, if a person in a nutshell is facing a neighbourhood which is deviant, then its only way to escape from being victimise is to leave that place. Official versus unofficial data In order to facilitate democratic accountability, it is important to get the statistics of crime so that the police of the country can be informed and this will allow the public to detect the risk of crime in their locality. As per the recent statistics, an approximately 6.2 million crimes were reported in England and Wales from the Crime Survey for England and Wales. The survey further reported that 2.0 million cybercrime and 3.6 million frauds took place in the in the full year of 2016. This survey had covered more than 11.8 million incidents of crime. The trend of crime in the UK has risen to 3% as per the cases of frauds had been submitted to the police[10]. Furthermore, bulk of financial fraud has been unreported to the police and a study shows that this fraud cases on the UK issued-cards has attained an increase of 39% than the previous year. Officially 35% of crime is reported every year. Officially there is 40% of crime. Although most of the fundamental criminal issues get reported with official crime statistics till the 19th century and it also included the dark figures of crime also but in the mid 20th century, apart from this official data, unofficial crime statistics were initiated to explore and investigate the dark figures of crime. Dark figures of crime are the violence that doesnt get reported via official data to the police but these are reported in unofficial crime statistics so that preventive measures are generated and crimes can be controlled[11]. This unofficial data source is categorised into two sections and these are social-science and private-agency records and both of these are done by surveys. The social science sources include self-reports of criminal involvement and surveys of victimisation. The self-report was used initially to ventilate the offences of hidden crime in the 1940s and it is still used today in the UK. Surveys of victimisation is the most recent and probably the m ost influential and evident forecasts of hidden crimes. The survey of victimisation aims to illuminate the dark figures of crime from the perspective of the victim rather than to only exposing the crime. As per a recent statistics, an estimated 6.9 million criminal offence against households were reported, sexual offences in the UK have also sparked up to 32%. The result of these surveys helped the UK police to have an idea of the dark figures of unrecorded crime[12]. Both the police statistics and the crime surveys provide flawless information but the main difference is that the crime surveys cannot count crimes without individual victims whereas police statistics count crimes on the basis of the memory of its respondents and representatives of the sample[13]. The three Rs in criminology are rehabilitation, re-entry and recidivism. Recidivism is referred as a tendency to evolve a previous mode of action or behaviour, specifically it means relapse into a criminal behaviour. Rehabilitation means teaching a criminal to live a productive and normal life. Re-entry refers to the process of teaching criminals to live a free life i.e. transition to free living is induced in them and it includes the time when they were in prison, the process of their release and the way they are supervised after imprisonment. Different definitions of crime In criminology, the definitions of crime are dependent on the approach of how a crime has been attempted. For examples- Homicide refers to the killing of a person by another. Homicides are of two types: Criminal homicides and State-sanctioned homicide[14]. When sanction of punishment in the state is conducted by someone, then they are non criminal homicide. The criminal prosecution gives capital punishment, death punishment based on major parameter of the crime. Purposeful murder, accidental death is criminal homicide. In case of certain category manslaughter is also the cause of crime which is homicidal case. Murder refers to the intentional killing of a human being. Murder is also a crime which is the reason of personal jealously, revenge or self protection. First degree murder is referred to the intentional killing while second degree murder refers to the unintentional killing[15]. Felony murder refers to the death that occurs during serious felony like kidnapping or robbery. Manslaughter means that due to reckless conduct of the killer, a person gets killed unintentionally. Negligent homicide means killing someone due to negligence. Battery means making offensive act of physical contact with someone. Vehicular assault means reckless driving that causes injury to the others. Vehicular assault may be accidental or sometime intentional. In case of this type of assault several accidents can occur. Spousal assault means violence between domestic partners[16]. Spousal assault is performed in the case of domestic abuse or harm. It is forcefully done by the spouse. Rape is the act of forcibly compelled sexual intercourse with an adult who is below 18 or above 18 or with someone which as per law is considered as incapable of consent like in case of disabled women. Sodomy is the act of forced oral sex or consensual participation of same acts between a juvenile and an adult. Conclusion This assignment comprises a brief idea of criminology. It has discussed the concept of criminology both from the perspective of the classical schools of though and positivist idea. It has also explained how the concept of criminology and victimisation has changed over time with various theories of victimisation and criminology[17]. It has explained the importance of official and unofficial data in recording criminal offences and has also mentioned their basic difference. Lastly it has also mentioned various definitions of crimes in various contexts followed. Bibliography Anthony, Thalia, The Critical Criminology Companion (Hawkins Press, 1st ed, 2008) Bernard, T.J., (2013).Vold's theoretical criminology(p. 179189). New York: Oxford University Press. Burke, Roger Hopkins,An Introduction To Criminological Theory(Willan, 1st ed, 2014) Conklin, John Evan, Criminology (Pearson, 1st ed, 2013) Criminological Theory Essentials + The Concise Dictionary Of Crime And Justice, 2Nd Ed (Sage Pubns, 1st ed, 2015) Ellis, Lee, Richard D Hartley and Anthony Walsh, Research Methods In Criminal Justice And Criminology (Rowman Littlefield Publishers, 1st ed, 2010) Geo?rgulas, Stratos, The Politics Of Criminology (Lit, 1st ed, 2012) Heidt, J. and Wheeldon, J.P., (2015).Introducing criminological thinking: Maps, theories, and understanding. Sage Publications. Herrmann, Christopher R, Risky Business (1st ed, 2012) Lutgens, Frederick K, Deviant Behavior + Mysearchlab (Prentice Hall, 1st ed, 2008) Morgan, Rodney, Robert Reiner and Mike Maguire, The Oxford Handbook Of Criminology (Oxford University Press, 1st ed, 2012) Rekers, George Alan, The Journal Of Human Sexuality (Stanley and Lewis, 2nd ed, 2005) Tierney, John,Criminology(Taylor and Francis, 1st ed, 2013) Wegener, Hermann, Friedrich Lo?sel and Jochen Haisch, Criminal Behavior And The Justice System (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2nd ed, 2003) Wilkins, Leslie T, Social Deviance (Routledge, 1st ed, 2014) Williams, Franklin P and Marilyn D McShane, Criminological Theory (Pearson/Prentice Hall, 1st ed, 2010)

Monday, December 2, 2019

Witch Hunts And The Church With Bibliogaphy Essays - Witchcraft

Witch Hunts And The Church With Bibliogaphy I am a witch, now please kill me! Many innocent women happily welcomed death by confessing to witchcraft in order to end their excruciating torture during the witch hunt craze between 1450 and 1750. Since many records were lost, destroyed or never kept, the best estimation of the total deaths is several million (4). The main cause of the witch hunts was the Church inflicting fear upon the common and educated man by lying to them about what witches do and who they are. The Church also directly and indirectly increased the pain that accused women would go through during their torture. The Church made it clear, to all those who would listen, that all women were evil and capable of witchcraft. The Bibles Apocrypha states, Of woman came the beginning of sin / And thanks to her, we all must die.(Apocrypha, Ecclesiasticus 25:13-26.) (2). Vicious comments like this caused even women themselves to fear what other women may do. This fear only lead to the distrust of woman. A book written by two German men, titled Malleus Maleficarum, The Hammer of Witches, only furthered peoples fear of womens evil. It states that women are more likely to become witches: Because the female sex is more concerned with things of the flesh then men; because being formed from a mans rib, they are only imperfect animals and crooked where as man belongs to a privileged sex from whose midst Christ emerged.(Malleus Maleficarum, 1486)(2). The men that wrote Malleus Maleficarum refer to the bible for reasons to why they consider women evil, so if the Church had never incorporated such things into the bible such things may have never been thought. Many ancient myths portrayed goddesss as evil. Consequently those images of evil were kept and later attached to witches who kept goddess worship alive centuries later (4). Even devotion to the Virgin Mary (who is the biological mother of Jesus) was considered an indication of evil (2). One women, named Aldonca de Vargas, was even reported just for smiling at the mention of the Virgin Mary (Henry Kamen, Inquisition and Society in Spain) (2). Once a women was accused of witchcraft she would first have to confess in order to be executed. The torturing of accused women was so unbelievably horrid and sadistic that you would think a man of low standing would be the one to carry it out, but sadly it was the men of educated positions such as bishops, judges, professors and others. By doing the torture themselves it set them in a position of fear throughout the community and it is even said that after the execution of a wealthy witch, officials [would treat] themselves to a banquet at the expense of the victims estate. (Barbara Walker)(2). All of the victims estate became the property of the government as soon as they were accused. The torture was done in such a businesslike fashion that the relatives were charged for the victims torture and death (4). They were charged for such things as the ropes that bound them and the wood that burned them. (Barbara Walker).(2). Some methods of torturing the accused witches into confessing were thumbscrews, whips, red-hot tongs, and the rack, this lead to there bones being crushed, limbs severed and flesh seared. After being locked up and tortured for days on end, most women would confess in order to die and some would also accuse neighbors and friends hoping to end their own pain (4). Another method of determining the guilt of the accused was to stab needles into her eyes and if an insensitive spot was found then she was considered guilty. A Spanish church even went as far as to conform a statue of the Virgin Mary into a device of torture. They did this by covering the front side of the statue with sharp knives and nails, then they used levers to make the arms of the statue crush the accused against the knives and nails (Jean Plaidy, The Spanish Inquisition) (2). Men would also brutally attack the breasts and genitals of accused witches if they became sexually aroused around her, because it was thought that the witch caused them