Sunday, November 10, 2019
Organisational Behaviour Essay
In any organisation, the employers exhibit varied behaviours. Behaviour is a social corporate responsibility (Antal & Sobczak, 2004). An organisation should not just demand some kind of behavior but be incorporated in ensuring that this is achieved. The systematic study of how individuals act in an organisation, either individually or as a group is referred to as organisational behaviour (Michael, 2005). There exists many factors that would shape the way people interact in organisations. These seek to predict, control and explain some facts. Despite major criticisms concerning the ethics of controlling the behavior of workers, organisational behaviour has been very instrumental in the development and success of organisations. In the modern world, organisational behaviour is a rapidly growing field. People from different regional and cultural backgrounds have to work together thus making it necessary to moderate the way they interact. These studies have been integrated with other domains for effectiveness, these are: anthropology, ethics and leadership. The leadership domain seeks to give an insight into the role leadership plays in an organisation in the change management process. An individual learns some behaviour from an organisation either directly or indirectly (ICMR, 2007). Theories widely accepted in learning are cognitive, behaviouristic and social learning theories. Learning is attributed to the association between stimulus and response. In behaviouristic theory, the desired behaviour is achieved through the application of theories on behaviour. This theory tends to deal with those skills learnt to be used later excluding those capabilities that are inborn (Behavioural Theory, 2008). People are taught and learn rather than inherit traits. In the context of Ã¢â¬ËWaiting Tables for GodotÃ¢â¬â¢ passage, we can analyse some of the traits that are taught rather than the inherent ones. Jean-Pierre Godot, the owner of La Maison taught his staff some of the things he expected them to observe. He taught the workers to work as a team and work excellently for that matter. It is out of this that Diane knew that she had to give her best. How else could she be excellent? In essence, she was putting into practice what was taught to her by Godot; excellence in duty. It is also easy to see that Diane had acquired some other knowledge elsewhere. She had learnt to balance several plates on her arms. Diane could speak French despite living and studying in Australia. It is therefore only wise to conclude Diane should have been taught French. This enabled her to perform well since it is clear from the passage that she was an excellent worker. Customers complemented her for offering efficient service and even gave her tips. Cognitive theory involves learning through mistakes (Domjan, 2003). An individual avoids the path leading to pre-committed mistakes the next time similar activities are undertaken (Jaffee, 2000). In the case passage, when Diane dropped a bowl of bouillabaisse appetiser, her boss yelled at her and even went ahead to deduct $44. 95 form her pay. This taught Diane that carrying many order plates at once was not safe. It also made her realise that Godot was not concerned with the good deeds by the workers but rather by their shortcomings. Slowing down her pace was the immediate lesson that Diane learnt from this experience. From the same mistake, the University of Canberra student realised that with a slower pace, she would make little money to meet her needs. It was only advisable for her to carry on at the same pace but take more caution to avoid any outbursts from her boss. Lastly, the kind of behaviour that is passed on through observation is expounded in social theory. An individual watches some traits that others exhibit and adapts the same. It is very common with children. According to Miller and Dollard (1941), the observer imitates the observed action which is then adapted and rewarded with a positive reinforcement. Diane, a newly employed worker at La Maison observed the cook being scolded by Godot. She immediately learnt that she had no option but to give the best in her capacity if she was to avoid any trouble. By observing the nature of her customers, she learnt to be friendly and even employ some other skills like speaking French when need be. Diane observed that by warmly welcoming customers she had served before, she was able to retain them. She thus employed her courtesy skills to retain customers. Social behavior includes the inherent characteristics. Diane exhibited traits like the art of balancing several plates on her arms. She was also talented in the recommendation of wines that go well with specific meals. This Canberra student had persuasive skills to convince customers to buy lavish desserts by the way she described them. Her memory never failed. She correctly entered her orders and duly delivered them. Moreover, she remembered repeat customers and ushered them back warmly. These are some behavioural traits that are not necessarily taught. They could be inborn. Consequences have been used in many cases to determine the occurrence of behaviour. This is referred to as operant conditioning or instrumental conditioning. Learning occurs only at that point where the learner appreciates the connection that exists between behaviour and its consequences (Wagner, 2005). It is operated in by the environment but maintained by consequences. Reinforcement and punishment could either be positive or negative. The positive aspect is achieved when it is delivered due to some response whereas the negative is withdrawn due to a response. Extinction is another tool of operant conditioning where there exists no change in consequences following some response. In punishment, the behaviour of an individual is weakened following the experience of some negative condition (Operant Conditioning Basics, 1999). It is of significance to note that it is only response that is extinguished, punished or reinforced. Positive reinforcement exists where a pleasant stimulus that enhances a certain behaviour is a result of a response. In Ã¢â¬ËWaiting Tables for GodotÃ¢â¬â¢, customers kept complementing DianeÃ¢â¬â¢s service as a consequence of her excellent service. They would also give tips to this University student. Godot on the other hand always yelled at her workers. The La Maison owner would even use French to express his dissatisfaction. In a way, this made sure things get done the right way. It is seen that even Diane becomes more careful when handling his order plates to avert losses like the one experienced before. Godot explained to new workers what he expected from them; excellent job. This, if taken from DianeÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction, shows that workers gave their best because of this initiative. On the other hand, negative reinforcement is a situation where a behaviour is a result of stopping a negative condition, usually considered unpleasant. For example, when Godot scolds his cook and chef, they get things moving. When he yells out his anger at Diane for dropping bouillabaisse appetiser on the carpet, Diane reconsiders how careful she is with her job. She therefore averts the negative consequences where she has to break her employerÃ¢â¬â¢s property and even have her pay deducted for compensation. It is also clear that Diane finds some work to do during her vacation than just stay at home to avoid rice and spaghetti meals when she resumes back to Canberra University the following semester. Positive punishment would refer to a situation where a response occurs as a result of an aversive stimulus. This includes the introduction of loud noise or shock. Jean-Pierre Godon knew how to employ this tool. He would yell at his workers if only to get things moving faster. Regularly, he would speak in French if only to drive the point home. At one particular time, when Diane dropped the bouillabaisse appetiser, she was scolded and part of her salary deducted to cater for the losses her employer had incurred. This produced positive change as she became more careful in whatever she handled in La Maison thereafter. When DianeÃ¢â¬â¢s pay was slashed, she opted to observe extra caution. Not only was her pay deducted but she also lost a considerable amount of tips because of the slow down in her service. This served to improve the way she handled her order plates. This condition where a favorable outcome is withdrawn following an unpleasant behaviour is known as negative punishment (Wagner, 2005). Both the negative and the positive punishment result to decreased behaviour. There are conditions that result when a behaviour that had been reinforced previously ceases to be effective. This is extinction. In the case passage, Diane is portrayed as a very efficient worker who would go extra lengths to accomplish her duties. For instance, she would balance several plates on her arms which made her avoid many trips to the kitchen. She would also carry out her duties so well that Godot, her boss, never crossed paths with her. However, on the day she messed herself by dropping appetiser of bouillabaisse on the carpet, all these things ceased to be meaningful. Her expertise in balancing several plates in her arms was no longer a positive attribute. It had cost her $44. 95 of her pay. It was therefore not worth going on with this but rather resort to carrying just a few plates at a time. Although she did not break any item in La Maison henceforth, Godot was still irritated with this University student. Godot was not satisfied with her wait staff effort. No matter how hard they tried to fulfil their bossÃ¢â¬â¢s demands, Godot would still hurry them up with insults in French. Their effort was therefore extinct. DianeÃ¢â¬â¢s life was surely affected by these learning tools in one way or another. Positive reinforcements made her achieve her targets. When customers would complement her, she would feel that she was doing the right thing. This motivated her to offer the best that she could. Customers would tip her, t times to a high of $23 a day which implied to Diane that she would not take rice and spaghetti in the next semester at the University of Canberra. She would also get more customers into GodotÃ¢â¬â¢s business place because of her good communication and interpersonal skills. Nonetheless, some negative reinforcement aspects caused her humiliation. When Godot finds her on the wrong and scolds her, she is forced to do away with quite a portion of her pay as compensation for the losses the boss incurs. She is prompted to reduce her service speed to avert similar happenings. When Godot imposes a fine to Diane for her actions, he knows that this will assist this lady avoid carelessness in the future. She is forced to serve lesser customers which implies reduced tips for her. This is positive punishment since it is meant to give positive results. It is out of this that this student becomes cautious with her work. Though this impacted negatively on her goals, losses in the organization was prevented. From the unpleasant behaviour of Godot in the context of Diane, this worker changes and becomes even a better employee as she does not break items anymore but becomes more cautious. There are various ways that an employer would incorporate in their management to yield the desired results. GodotÃ¢â¬â¢s idea was to pay per hour and allow the workers have tips from customers. It would thus ensure that at no one particular hour would the workers desire to do nothing. They would always seek to be busy each unfolding hour. This simply meant that Godot would have an all time operational business. This translates to more work and more profits for him. He would also not have to pay for any wasted hours during the day than if he was to pay, say per month. It will also mean that he could employ new employees every hour and avert the problem of absenteeism. Tips on the hand encouraged the workers to serve more customers in anticipation for more tips. This similarly translates to more work and consequently profits for Godot.